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Where is Dutchess Junction?

From the 1840s to 1930, there were several brickyards flourishing at the small community of Dutchess Junction where the Newburgh, Dutchess and Connecticut Railroad intersected with the Hudson River Railroad.

"Today there is very little evidence that Dutchess Junction ever existed. When you ask, Where is Dutchess Junction?, most local residents respond with only a puzzled look. The nearest passable road is more than a mile away, but if you hike through the trees to Dutchess Junction, all you are likely to find are a few overgrown foundations and some scattered bricks.

In addition to hosting numerous brickyards, "at the peak of operations, Dutchess Junction was a thriving town with a train station that served two railroads, the ND&C Railroad and the NYC&HR Railroad. There was also the busy ferry and freight dock for Hudson River boat traffic. The ND&C Railroad repair shops were located at Dutchess Junction as well. Workers lived in tenement houses owned by the railroad. Descriptions of the ND&C facilities include a locomotive repair shop, a carpenter shop, brass foundry, paint shop, car repair and build shop, coal and water facilities plus a turntable with a roundhouse and train yard. Adjacent to the ND&C Railroad property was (another) brick manufacturing company. Dutchess Junction was a bustling, active community."

Here's a report from the 1889 New York State Geological Survey:
Dutchess Junction.
"Some three quarters of a mile north of Storm King the eighty-feet terrace commences, and extends almost uninterruptedly to Dutchess Junction, yielding clay nearly its entire length. The clay has a fairly uniform thickness, the upper forty-eight feet being yellow and the rest blue. The greatest thickness of clay thus far known in this vicinity is at Aldridge Bros.' yard, where a wall of sixty-five feet was sunk through the play, giving a total thickness of 130 feet at this point. It reaches a similar depth no doubt at other yards along here. The clay is usually covered by gravel, and by sand in some cases sufficiently fine to be used for molding or for tempering. The clay is worked in benches, and the haulage distance is from 200 to 300 feet. At Timoney's yard the clay is covered with scrub oaks and bushes, which necessitates some extra labor in stripping."

Today most of Dutchess Junction is part of the huge Hudson Highlands State Park. To see it on an interactive map, Click Here. (Be sure to try the Aerial and Bird's Eye views!)

The Brickyards

This 1891 F. W. Beers map shows (from north to south) the yards of:
W. D. Budd (W D B)
Aldrich (Aldridge) Bros. (A B C)
T. Aldrich (Aldridge)
L. Van Buren (L V B)
F. Timony (F T) (TIMONEY)


(Click for larger image)

Daniel deNoyelles in Within These Gates lists the following owner/operators in 1910
(with the number of machines they used):

William K. Hammond ................ 3
Hammond & Freeman ................. 4
Anchor Brick Co. .................. 6
Aldridge Brick Co. ............... 10
Estate of F. Timoney ............. 10
W. D. Budd Brick Co. .............. 5
Nicholson Brothers ................ 4 

The 1889 New York State Geological Survey listed the Yard Owners and Workers as follows:

1889 NYS Survey
1889 NYS SurveyDJ
1889 NYS SurveyDJ

In summary, from our research and site visits, Dutchess Junction brickmakers and brands included:

Aaron Ennis Aldridge (A. E. A.)
Thomas Aldridge (ALDRIDGE)
Aldridge Brothers & Co. (A B C)
Anchor Brick Co. (ANCHOR)
Archer Brick Co. (ARCHER)
Barnacue & Dow*
George H. Bontecue (BON T Q) (G.H.BCo)
George H. Bontecue & Covert (B & C Co)
Clayton Bourne Brick Co. (BOURNE)
W. D. Budd Brick Co. (WDB, BUDD)
Carman & Denton
Nathaniel and Alonzo Covert, Covert Bros. (COVERT)*
Fishkill Brick Company (F B C)
Freeman and McDonald (F&McD)
Gormley & Son (G & Son)
Hammond & Freeman (H & F)
Martin Brick Company (MARTIN)
McCabe & McGrath (MC & MC)
John C. McNamara (MCNAMARA)
Morrissey & Co.
Morrissey & Shankey (M & S)
Murray & Morrissey (M & M)
Nicholson Brothers (N BROS) (N B)
Pierre A. Northrip (P.A.N.)
Shankey & Morrissey (S & M)
Francis Timoney (F T) (TIMONEY)
T. Timoney
Lawrence Van Buren (L V B)

We have also found at the site, and are still researching, the following brands:

MC & D

*Regarding Barnacue & Dow, and perhaps COVERT:
We have received these notes from website visitor, Joyce Dow Jepsen:

"George A. Dow held the DOW brand. It's possible that at a different time he was part of the Barnacue and Dow partnership. A cousin made me a rubbing of one of the DOW bricks, and it's a treasure, as is the A&D brick from my grandfather's yard in Amherst, MA. My grandfather's dad (Royal) and George A. were brothers, so there was a lot of brick making going on in the family! They worked in brick yards in CT (Stiles, Davis), Taunton (Stiles) and Amherst (Atwater & Dow). Both of George A.'s sons -- William P., his eldest child, and Charles F. -- also made brick, although I don't know precisely where. In the Fishkill area, but I don't know which yard. According to the 1900 census, William was a brick yard supervisor. Another thing I find interesting is the fact that one of George's daughters, Marianne, married Nathaniel COVERT. There were Covert men who made brick, and I wonder if there was a connection somewhere."

Website "guru" Fred Rieck replies:

"With respect to Barnacue, Barnacue and Dow is listed in an early 1894 NY State clay industries report. I suspect this is a misspelling of Bontecue as in George H. Bontecue, brick manufacturer and postmaster of Dutchess Junction, at one time. In a later, 1900 clay industry report, Bontecue is spelled as is. Brick marked G.H.BCo and BON.TQ have been found within 75 miles of Dutchess Junction, and are believed to be made by Bontecue. Oddly enough several contributors to this website have spent days searching thru the Dutchess Junction brick manufacturing area and to my knowledge, had not found any production floor made of brick attributible to DOW or the aforementioned Bontecue marks. Much of this brick making area has been covered over by condominium complexes, in the past 10 years. According to a listing of brick manufacturers compiled by Jim Graves - his work "Brick Brands of the United States," There was a George Dow manufacturing brick In Fishkill in about 1895. Fishkill is a rather general location for people manufacturing along the river between Dutchess Junction and Brockway."


(Unless otherwise noted, all bricks were found
at or near the location of the original yards, now Hudson Highlands State Park.)

Aldridge Brick Co.



"Daniel Aldridge resided in Mudhole, NY (which is now known as Roseton, NY). Daniel is thought to have moved to Newburgh, NY, sometime between 1810 and 1817, due to the fact that his wife was from there. One of his sons was Thomas Aldridge born in 1818 and died August, 1892. Thomas bought a farm near Fishkill Landing, NY in the fall of 1853 which later became the 'ABC' (Aldridge Brothers & Company) Brickyard in Dutchess Junction, NY."
(SOURCE: Steven Blair Aldridge Family Home Page)

"In the business affairs of New York State, where he became one of the leading figures in the brick industry, Aaron Ennis Aldridge for many years took an important part. His was a place of outstanding character in commercial circles, and he was dearly loved by his fellowmen in widely varying walks of life. For his personal qualities, as well as for his achievements, he was recognized as an individual of great ability, for his traits of mind and heart were such as to win for him the very high regard of all who knew him. Integrity, soundness and accuracy of judgment, kindliness in attitude and deed, depth of sympathy and understanding, breadth of vision, life in accordance with the loftiest principles of human behavior-these were among the chief characteristics of Mr. Aldridge, whose career was of worth and whose life was finely lived.

Mr. Aldridge was born on January 19, 1851, in Balmville, near Newburgh, New York. His father, Thomas Aldridge, was a brickmaker, who lived most of his life and died in Chelsea, having bought up farms at Dutchess Junction to form a brickyard. This enterprise became very successful; and the father's success naturally led the son into similar undertakings.

Aaron E. Aldridge wanted, in boyhood, to become a lawyer, but when his mother died, he was only ten years old, and his father did not care to have him leave home, preferring him to be with his sisters. So he went to work for his father, at Dutchess Junction; and then, when the elder Mr. Aldridge removed to Chelsea, the boy remained in charge of the Dutchess Junction business. For many years one of the leading figures in the brick industry, Aaron E. Aldridge was president of the Thomas Aldridge Brick and Land Company, and he also served as vice-president of the Greater New York Brick Company. He was prominent as a manufacturer, and still more so as a selling agent in New York City, where he had offices in the Times Square Building. From that center, he handled the output of many yards along the river. He was recognized throughout the country as an authority on brick making and the brick market. Up and down the Hudson, wherever bricks were made, he was known and honored, not only for his aptitude and integrity in business, but for his excellent personal qualities that endeared him to all who knew him. His own brickyard was one of the largest along the river, and a model for all others.

Along with his business affairs, Mr. Aldridge took an active interest in civic life. For many years he was trustee of the old village of Fishkill Landing, and won admiration far and wide by his broad vision and courage in seeking village improvements and suggesting methods of municipal betterment while he was a member of the board. He was also one of the oldest members of the Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, where he was a constant attendant as long as his health permitted. For many years he served as a member of the official board; nor did he take a keener interest in any of his many activities than in the church and its work. Though inactive in his later years, he will long be remembered as one of the most capable brick manufacturers and traders of New York State. He was a public-spirited citizen, too, one whose personal traits won respect and esteem in every circle of society. He died in 1925 in Beacon, NY."
(SOURCE: Sullivan, James, History of New York State, 1523-1927, [Vol. 6] 1873-1931.)

W.D. Budd Brick Co.


found at the West Point Foundry, Cold Spring, NY

Nathaniel and Alonzo Covert, Covert Bros.


Gormley and Son


William K. Hammond


The Hammond site today

Hammond and Freeman

H & F

Special to The New York Times. August 31, 1902, Sunday:

John C. McNamara


From Fred Rieck: "John C. McNamara is listed in the 1901 Breed Publishing Co. Directory of the NY Central and H.R.R.R. In another directory, of 1905 vintage, there is an entry of The Anchor Brick Co., also of Dutchess Jnct. along with those of John C. McNamra and Nathaniel Covert as being associated with that firm (evidently) located at the Covert Brothers yard."

Webmaster Note: We received an email from Joe McNamara telling us that his grandfather, Francis J. McNamara and his father before him, John C. McNamara, worked for Barnes, McNamara and Morrissey. Joe explains, "They were business agents for DPBW and Kingston brick yards, managing the various aspects of the business like transportation on the Hudson River. John C McNamara, my fatherís grandfather, married Mary Ann Timoney, Francis Timoneyís daughter. Iím told that my grandfather Francis J McNamara was actually born in the Dutchess Manor House."

In The Great Hudson River Brick Industry, George Hutton wrote about the "commission men:"
"The Greater New York Brick Company was not the result of cooperative effort among the manufacturers, but a hybrid organization resulting from the initiative of a handful of New York brick brokers--the commission men. William Barnes, John McNamara, and Richard Morrissey were prominent names among the early twentieth-century commission men.

Barnes was originally in the brick business at Grassy Point (the XXX brand) with the Farleys. A son of the latter family, James, became a nominee, for the U.S. presidency and then served as postmaster general during Franklin Roosevelt's administration. Jim Farley then became president of General Builders, a large materials dealer in the city that also purchased the Dennings Point plant (opposite Newburgh) in 1946. Farley was famed for his legendary ability to unfailingly associate an enormous number of peoples' names with their face priding himself on instant recall. The Morrisseys were also in the brick business on the Minisceongo Creek (at Grassy Point).

Barnes, McNamara, and Morrissey, by World War I, became a principal brick brokerage firm in the city and remained in business into the middle of the century, with the Hutton Company as a significant account. By the middle or the first decade of the century, the commission men were already working closely with the manufacturers, at times furnishing financing as well. Many of those brokers were themselves originally from Haverstraw and Grassy Point and on good personal terms with many of the brickmakers. Nevertheless, the objective was to produce the largest number of brick at the lowest cost. That was the market imposed condition for the manufacture of common bricks for the New York City market--and the negative effects of this inexorable pressure on the industry's profits and consequently upon investment in new technology, plant and equipment, wages, and working conditions cannot be overemphasized. By 1911, most of the manufacturers were forced to recognize the advantages of being under the corporate wing of the Greater New York."

Nicholson Brothers



Pierre A. Northrip

P. A. N.

Francis Timoney


At the age of 23 Francis Timoney came to the US where he worked at the SM Dykeman brickyard in Verplanck, Westchester County NY. After 3 years he had been foreman for 2 years, and began to work for shares. Two years later he purchased half interest in the company. Four years later he bought the second half. Here is an 1891 map of Verplanck by F. W. Biers showing the land owned by "F. Timony" (sic). In 1886 he purchased the Dutchess Junction properties. There was one yard in working order, eventually there were three (1/4 of million bricks per day!). He owned 2 barges that brought the materials up and down the Hudson River.8

In the 1900 Census for Fishkill, Dutchess, NY, Francis Timoney is listed as:
"Head of household, age 69, married 44 yrs, immigrated 1852, in US 48 yrs, naturalized, brick manufacturer, owns farm, free of mortgage, 40 acres."
He was born in 1829 or 1830 and died in 1902.

In addition to the brickyards, Timoney built and owned the Dutchess Manor House. He also built a Roman Catholic Church for his workers in Dutchess Junction (nicknamed Timoneyville) and named it after his patron saint (St Francis). Timoney was the Third Francis in his line and there have been many more since.2

On July 14, 1897 two of the three Timoney brickyards were all destroyed by a dam breaking. "The brick-making plant, wagons, carts &c., were swept across the railroad track into the river. At the northern yard were sixty arches of 'green' brick, 45,000 in each arch. The water softened these and let the whole down in a mass of clay. A twelve-arch kiln was burning. The flood put out the fire and practically ruined the brick. Mr Timoney will be unable to resume operations in the two yards this year. The yards had a capacity of 24,000,000 bricks a year and Mr. Timoney's loss is $25,000. The adjoining brick yard of Hammond & Freeman was damaged to the extent of $5000.1"

The Timoneys were not able to fully recover. Eventually, they sold the Manor House and it is now a catering facility. The church closed but eventually re-opened as a nursing home.

From Fred Rieck: "The brand was "F.T." for Francis Timoney, or his son Frank. Francis owned the yard first (and a grocery) and Frank became the listed manufacturer after 1887. He remained listed as a manufacturer until 1905 when both the Beacon City Directory and the 1905 NY State Quarry and Mining Industry Report list his wife, Margaret Timoney, as a Dutchess Junction brick manufacturer."

Strikers Intimidate Them with Clubs and Pistols -- Deputles Called Out.


Beers, F. W., 1891 map
deNoyelles, Daniel Within These Gates
Hutton, George V., The Great Hudson River Brick Industry
New York State Geological Survey, 1889
New York Times, July 15, 1897
Rieck, Fred
Rudberg, Bernard L., Twenty-Five Years on the ND&C: A History of the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut Railroad
Sullivan, James, History of New York State, 1523-1927, [Vol. 6] 1873-1931.
Van derPoel, Andy is powered by
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