Hudson River Brickmaking | Brick History/How Bricks Were Made
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Visitors' Comments, Questions, Collections
and Brix Pix

Webmaster Note: This area of the web site has grown by leaps and bounds since 2006, Note that our focus is primarily on brick from the Hudson Valley and New England. If you are researching brick from these areas, you will find a lot of information on our Brick Blog. You will also find the Search Boxes on the site helpful (scroll down for the Search Box on this page).

If you are looking for information on bricks from other areas we suggest you direct your questions to Jim Graves of the International Brick Collectors Association (IBCA). You can E-mail him at Jim has an extensive collection of historical information and is the Librarian for the IBCA. NOTE: The new web address for the IBCA is

To visit our Archives from March 2006 thru July 15, 2008: start below and continue on the next several pages

NOTE: If you are looking for brick brand information, use the Site Search Box (below) to help find the page(s) where that brand is discussed.

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January 1 thru July 15, 2008

Daniel Polsfuss writes:
I am making a little documentary about a neighborhood in St. Louis MO called Richmond heights. The neighborhood was made up of workers from Evans & Howard Brick Works. Any ideas on how I can get photographs of Evans & Howard, maybe people working there or in general people working in a brick yards from the early 1900s. Thank you.


Joshua writes:
I was doing some yard work and happened to look into my buddy's window well... in the window well is a brick with a name on it. it looks to be,
& f. oo
with a iron cross at the end of it. i have two good pics of it i would like to send. could anybody tell me anything about this brick, thanks in advance


A reply from Fred Rieck:
Hi Josh, I just happen to be looking at a picture of a brick which appers to correspond to the one you describe. The nomenclature reads: ST. LOUIS V & F. B. CO + STAR +. The brick may be read as: St Louis Vitrified and Fire Brick Company

From Webmaster Don B.:
Found on the Web that the St. Louis Vitrified & Fire-Brick Co had an exhibit at the History of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition AKA the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904.


Ann Gibbons:
I have 4 bricks, photos of which I thought I might like to send in: NEBCo, Widemire, D.B. Co.(has a bit of mortar on it), and C.B. Co (which has a point to it rather than regular rectangular. I picked these up at Massachusetts Mills, built in 1839 in Lowell, Massachusetts, now abandoned and partially falling into ruin. I also have photos of the mill itself, if this would be of interest. Thank you.

Hi Ann, aspiring brick collector ...? ... careful, it's catching. By virtue of the the initials of the brick in your selection as a whole , it is a fairly good bet that the NEBCO is a New England Brick Co product. They had several plants in New England and one in Mechanicville , NY. The DBCO may be that of the Duffney Brick Co, also of Mechanicville. That is a guess at this point because you didn't mention if your brick had a "clothesline pulley" symbol between the "B" and the "C" If it does we can be more certain. Duffney also made an initialed brick with out the symbol in which the letter "D" looks like a box with square corners. DBCOs with more normal looking "D"s also abound but Its identity is a bit speculative, to my thinking. The Widemire is probably a fire brick, if an off-white or buff color and larger than the red building brick in your collection. Widemire, according to Karl Gurcke, of Bricks and Brickmaking, is the mark of the Harbison-Walker Co. of Pennsylvania, and in use from about 1921 to 1942. The CBCo is quite likely that of the Champlain Brick Co of (and again) Mechanicville, NY. When you mention point, I presume you are referring to the outside profile (shape) of the brick. Without actually seeing the brick I would suspect that the this brick's function (with others) may have been to give the building a more decorative look around doors and windows, for example.
--Fred Rieck

June '08:

SHERESE comments:
Hello i love your website ..I live in lynbrook, ny (Long Island) .. i have a brick tudor that was built in 1931 with NASSAU BRICK do u know any history about this company?

The NASSAU marked bricks were made by the Nassau Brick Co. at Farmingdale, (Long Island) New York
--Fred Rieck

From your Webmaster:
The Nassau Brick Company was originally called Post Brick. Here's some stuff I found on the Web (from ""):

"Through the efforts of Francis M. Gaynor, Glen Head now has a beautiful twenty-two acre memorial park, donated to the town in 1946 by the Post Brick Company of which Mr. Gaynor is president. Mr. Gaynor has continued his work in this enterprise as chairman of the memorial park and building committee. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 27, 1894, Francis Gaynor is the son of Hugh and Jane (Pritchard) Gaynor, both natives of Philadelphia. Hugh Gaynor, who died in 1909, was a brick manufacturer by trade; Jane Gaynor died in 1904. Francis M. Gaynor was educated in the public and high schools of Philadelphia. After attending Temple University for one year, he apprenticed with his uncle, James Gaynor, in the brick manufacturing business in Philadelphia and remained there until 1917. With the advent of World War I, Mr. Gaynor entered the armed services and for twenty-two months was assigned to the Air Corps at Hazelhurst (now Roosevelt Field.) In March, 1919 he received an honorable discharge. Upon his return to civilian life Mr. Gaynor became associated with Jotham Post, a brick manufacturer of Glen Head. Here his work was so successful and his progress so marked that he received a partnership in the Post Brick Company in 1924. Four years later, when Mr. Post died Francis M. Gaynor took over the complete managership of the company and continued in this capacity until 1942 . In 1936, the present plant was purchased at Farmingdale, the business was re-named the Nassau Brick Company, and Mr. Gaynor enlarged his managerial staff. Townsend B. Pettit, Sr., is vice president and Townsend B. Pettit, Jr., is secretary and treasurer. The only company of its kind in this area, the Nassau Brick Company employs fifty-five people and has a yearly manufacturing capacity of twenty-five million bricks."
(The Nassau Brick Company is now out of business.)


From David McTamaney:
Wow--great site!!! I found a brick today that has N. I. P. on it, with the N written backwards. Any idea what company that was?? I found the brick in Newburgh, NY

From Fred Rieck:
NIP is Norton I. Pennock. He is listed in a Poughkeepsie city directory as a brick manufacturer on Springdale Ave, Arlington, NY in 1914. His home was on South Hamilton. In a 1928 listing, NIP is stated to be located on Van Wagner Road. This is the last year that NIP is listed as a brick manufacturer.

From Don B., Webmaster:
There is a pic of the backwards N on our site on this page (scroll down).


Raynie Skipper writes:
Shaun, I am interested in a brick to comemorate Charles and Di's wedding in 1981. Please get in touch!

Webmaster Notes:
Shaun's post is HERE
Shaun, since we don't publish email addresses, you can contact Raynie via our Contact Form


Amy writes:
I have a brick with JJJ on it. would you be able to help me decipher it's origin? (Here's) a photo of it:

Thank you for your time.

Amy, you have a Jova brick. For lots of information on JJJ/Jova,
click this link.
Thanks for writing.
--Don B., Webmaster

Don -- thank you so much! There are 2 unusual indentations on either side of the "JJJ" and i was wondering if you or someone else may know what purpose this may have served or if it was merely a decorative style? Is there any way that i can try to find out approximately the year this brick was made? The brick was found in Manhattan, NY around 30th street and 10th ave. I really enjoyed reading up on the history regarding Juan Jacinto Jova and will look into the Storm King as well. Your website is wonderful! thank you again,

Hi Amy, Why the big dents? Good Question. I have been looking for a definitive answer on just this for several years. The most popular answer is that the " dents" saved the manufacturer clay and made the brick a little lighter thus saving on freight. A third idea is that the "dents" may allow the brick to cure quicker and resolve stresses that may set up in the brick when it dries and is burnt i,e, baked hard in laymen's terms.

Now this "dent" is a bit of an afterthought or perhaps an experiment. and a number of the last remaining producers JJJ, BRIGHAM, WBC (Washburn Brothers Company), SSBCO, and P&M made bricks like these. Brigham even used both tapered square based pegs AND round tapered cobs. These pegs cobs cubes were inserted and screwed into existing molds on top of the placque that bore the manufacturers initials.

If you ever find a wrecked bldg in which these "dented" brick were used, you may also find an occasional brick which only has one "dent or a a dent that is rotated slightly in relation to its twin, OR you may see a 1/4 inch hole where the "dent" is expected to be ...because the cob / peg / cube broke (split in two) off, leaving the mounting screw stuck in the mold.

Any other ideas ... anyone?
--Fred Rieck


From Ann Gibbons:
I have 4 bricks, photos of which I thought I might like to send in: NEBCo, Widemire, D.B. Co.(has a bit of mortar on it), and C.B. Co (which has a point to it rather than regular rectangular. I picked these up at Massachusetts Mills, built in 1839 in Lowell, Massachusetts, now abandoned and partially falling into ruin. I also have photos of the mill itself, if this would be of interest. Thank you.


Bob Malina writes:
As a teenager in 1956/7 I worked in the Eastern (Merwin) Brickyard in Berlin Conn and can share some first had experiences from the process and people there.

Webmaster Note: I have posted Bob's excellent first-hand account here: "The Brickyard, Summer of 1957".
I thank Bob for his unique historical documentation and I thank all our visitors who have contributed here and made this site a valuable forum for the brick collecting community and all lovers of architectural and industrial history.


Jack writes: I have a bricks with Hidden on them that I would like to sell. I don't know what they are worth.

Webmaster Note: We have some information on HIDDEN HERE.
We get a lot of inquiries regarding how much bricks are worth and if they can be sold. There are companies that will buy used brick. Some can be found in the Google ads sprinkled throughout our web site.

Regarding how much a brick is "worth," web site "regular" and fellow IBCA member, Fred Rieck writes:
"Most collectors would say, in one way or another, that brick are generally worth another brick. This may sound somewhat 'flippy' until one realizes that most collectors don't buy their brick. They find them dumped or discarded or where a friendly demolition contractor will let them help themselves to what they can carry. Many collectors are 'seniors' and collecting bricks offers them an interesting preoccupation with lots of sympathetic friends.

Secondly, many collectors swap their doubles and extras by the trunk, or trailer load for about as many others they don't have. ... and nobody keeps score. That is not to say some collector may not shop for a brick he/she values for one of special interest to him. It is also not to say that some collectors won't buy a brick here and there if it fits a particular purpose. Many non-collector decendents of brick manufacturers, upon learning their ancestors were engaged in brick manufacture, may desire a brick from that company as a momento."


Mark comments:
Hello, I really like your site!! I was doing some research into some bricks I found today. I found one online but mine is shaped differently. It is an "Allegany Valley Block" but it has a formed bulge in the top center. Have you seen any of these before? I found it in Albany, NY. I also found a "Pittsburg and Malvern" but really can't find much information on either of these. Somehow I can see myself getting into brick collecting!! Thanks in advance for any assistance or direction you could provide. Mark

A Reply from Fred Reick:
Hello Mark, The "Allegany Valley Block" is a street paving brick made in Olean, NY. I'm not sure about the bulge you mentioned, but these brick were extruded and repressed in such a fashion to produce spacer "buttons" or "lugs" which served to keep the brick separated enough when placed in the street to allow sand, tar, or some other material to be worked into the space and keep the brick locked in place and water out. The bulge may just be a deformity permanantly baked into the brick during the fireing process. Since these brick were largely destined for street use and not for the fronts of buildings, such imperfection was of little consequence. In building walls the brick had to be geometrically true, or the masons would have to fuss with them too much to make them fit properly and have the building look nice too. In the street, who would notice a little more bump? The Pittsburgh & Malvern is also a paver. ... made in Malvern, Ohio by the Pittsburgh and Malvern Clay co.
--Fred Rieck


Dan Eastman writes:
Found a brick of what looks like Granite..??? A.P.Green across the top and Empire D.P. below that..Approx. 10-12 lbs. and 10"Lx4"Wx3"Thick..Looks like it was poss. Died Red, But has faded to white... Can anyone Help with this... I've only found (1)one picture of an Empire Brick, and it just says Empire on it..Thanks...

A reply from Wayne Johnson
Empire D.P. (Empire Dry Press) is the lowest quality of refractory brick produced by A.P. Green Refractories Co. at Mexico, MO. The brick is a 9" 3" straight (9" X 4.5" X 3") and when fired has a light buff color with occasional dark spots. The 9" 3" straight is the second most common shape produced only to the 9" straight (9" X 4.5" 2.5") which is the standard for the refractories industry. The Mexico, MO plant has been closed for approximately two decades and in its' heyday was the largest refractories plant under one roof in the world. It occupied 27.5 acres and rose to approximately 105 ft. in the air. The plant complex had seven regular fire tunnel kilns, two blast furnace tile kilns, two stiff mud kilns, one IFB kiln and one Greenlite kiln. In the early 1970's it produced most of the refractories products which were used in the launch pads of Cape Kennedy.


From anecklaus:
Found a brick in my yard with LC LACLEDE on it....can anyone give me info on it? the LC is listed on the top line, and under it reads LACLEDE. thanks

Amanda writes:
Hi I found a brick under the roots of my very large pecan tree that recently was hit by a tornado and ripped from the ground. I tried to look it up but found nothing and then someone told me about this website. The brick has "WELLSVILLE SAVAGE" on it and I was wonder if you had any info on it?


Kathleen from Northern NJ comments:
Terrific website, thank you for all the information. I was able to research a large pile of bricks hiding in our woods; we're using them for raised garden beds and pathways. Only a small number have disintegrated over the past year, perhaps because they're out in the open? I've started brick-trading with friends and family now that my eyes are open to their history. The bricks we have are stamped SSBCO. Thanks again for the information.


From Lisa Brown:
I have an old brick we found. My house was built in 1927 and think it was here then. It is solid and says H.P. Co. NASHVILLE. Can you tell me anything about this brick? Thank you

Webmaster note:
Fred and I know there are some brick "gurus" out there. Share your knowledge. If you have an answer for Lisa, or anyone else here, please use our CONTACT FORM.


Dan comments:
I have three bricks. One appears to be a cobblestone. It has "Penn Block , caldor PA" on it. The second brick I have just has "STRASSBURG" Stamped into it and the thurd one has "WYNN"stamped into it. The second & third brick are a little larer than a regular brick and they are not red.

May '08:

Tim Underhill writes:
Thanks for all the tips. I've found many bricks at the yards in Haverstraw and Croton. I've recently found a brick in Newburgh. Y&W It was by itself the street. The letters on the brick are raised in a frog any help would be appreciated

A Reply from Fred Rieck:
I believe the Y&W brand mark is attributible to Yaeger and Wagner of Flushing, Queens. NY. I'm not 100 % certain of Yaeger's spelling.


From Eddie Webber:
Hello: I have an old brick I picked up in an antique store in Oklahoma. The brick is stamped TAYLOR & RAINES WAGONER I.T. Being Wagoner Indian Territory. The brick had to have been made 1907 or before statehood. Any information about this brick company would be appreciated. Thanks, Eddie Webber


JENNIFER wrties:
Hi, I found this site in researching a pile of bricks in my backyard. I am cleaning out debris from the previous owner and I have many Whiteselle Cherry Red Corsicana bricks. I know these are from a Texas yard called Whiteselle. I would like to find the best way to preserve these bricks maybe even recycle for one of my projects - new patio possibly. Some have caked on mortar. Would a capable craftsman be able to use these if I saved them? Jennifer


Andrew comments:
I have posted photos of several bricks found in a suburb of Chicago. I am curious if anyone has any information about them. It appears the manufacturer's names are: B & H Co., A B C (with a diamond after it), Wellsville Savage, LaClede (?) Sterling D P, & Canton Ohio Trademark B R I D E N (?). Any information would be appreciated. Thanks!


Kathy Zazula writes:
We just renovated our kitchen and found a stack of Dolan Bricks behind the wall. We want to know the history and value, if any, of the bricks. Thank you!


From Jessica Wickham:
hello -- I just discovered your wonderful website!
Internet stores are so convenient, yet there's something about being able to browse lazily in a bookstore on a Sunday afternoon! A compromise of modern life I suppose. Well, in any case I'm glad to learn that you are there! By the way, have you ever come across either of these bricks? The "HEDGES" brick or the "H" inside the moon brick? I found both of these in an old factory in Middletown, NY. Kind regards,

Webmaster Note:
Thanks Jessica for your kind comments!

Website "guru" Fred Rieck replies:
Ms. Wickham, your HEDGES was made in Cornwall, NY. In rereading your entry relative to your Middletown discoveries, and more the brick described as featuring [an "H" within a moon]. May we ask you to describe this brick or the logo, in a little more detail? Is the brick a light yellow or buff color? ... which may indicate it is a firebrick? Is the moon a crescent symbol? Is there a rectangularly shaped recess or drpression in the center of the widest surface? A photo would be helpful. We are familiar with crescents and single "H"s within a rectangular recess (called a frog)
Respectfully - Fred Rieck


Bob writes:
Hello, I am from Spencer, N.Y. and there was a brick yards here in the late 1800's. I was wondering if you knew anything about it or know someone who might. Thanks, Bob


Judy Eadson writes:
I'm so happy to find your site! My sister found a pile of used bricks for me, and I built a front walk. There are 13 different patterns stamped into the bricks. I've longed to hear the stories the bricks have to tell. From reading your site, at least I can learn where some of the bricks came from and approximately how old they are. Thank you!


From Teri Carey:
Hello. Not sure if you can help me, but I am looking for one original CAREY brick from the Carey Brick Company that was based in Chicago, Illinois in the 1970's. It closed down in the early 80's, but my husband's father used to run the brick company. He died several years ago, and I wanted to get a single brick for my husband for a Fathers Day gift that I know would mean a lot to him as he has been looking for one. Can you help me locate a Carey brick?


From Robin Honaker:
Hello, I did enjoy your web site and have a couple of questions. I have some brick, one has TEXAS written across it, another a star in the middle with what looks like a cathedral window in the upper left corner, also one with KING B embossed on it. Might you know the history of these? I cant seem to find them online. Thank you.

Webmaster note:
Chris Wolford, an IBCA member and contributor to the IBCA journal has a website with backgrounds on a number of western brick. You may find info on your TEXAS and KING B brick there. To visit his website Click Here.


From Leonard J. Grega:
I am a structural engineer working on a renovation project on a building that was constructed in 1947. The floor system consists of concrete tee beams spaced approximately 13" o.c. with 8" Natco tile in between the tees. Can you tell me what the weight of the Natco tiles would be on a psf basis. Thank you


From Mike DeFranco:
I was digging in my front yard an found some old bricks with the name NEWBURGH & MASSILLO on them are these antiques?


From Christopher Amodeo:
In my town, there is a boat ramp. The ramp has degraded over the years and under the tar ramp, is a layer of bricks. The bricks are falling out from under the tar on the sides of the boat ramp and landing in the salt water. Each brick says "Terry Bros" on it. Are these worth anything ? How old are they ?

I found a paving block marked "Tidewater" on it. It came from an old Nike Ajax missile site from the late 1940's that was torn down earlier this year on Long Island. Can anyone tell me when Tidewater became a company and when it ceased ? Thank you.


From Greg:
Thanks to this great site I was able to identify 26 out of the 28 different bricks I have collected over the years. There are 2 however that I couldn't find, maybe I just missed them. The first one has the letters OB&V on it, and the second one which I just found submerged along the west bank of the Hudson River a few miles north of the kngston/R. Bridge has an almond eye shape, with the letter M in the middle. Do you have any information on either of these two. Thanks, Greg

Fred Rieck replies:
The OB&V is the mark of O'BRIEN & VAUGHEY. The M in the oval (or almond)is a bit of a mystery. Thoughts (suggestions) that have been ventured, to me, are possibly McCabe or McGinnis. Both of these manufacturers have been in the area but that does not preclude another manufacturer we have'nt discovered yet. If anybody has some input on the possible owner of this brand please let us know, This ID thing is still a work in progress. Fred Rieck


From Lois McGivern:
I have some bricks that are quite old and they say VICTOR - they are a yellow color. I am looking for a history on them.


From Shelly Black:
I have 600+ "starburst" designed bricks...more of an enameled/shiny finish. I would interested in learning more. I do know they were originally in the sidewalk of a post office in Portage, OH. I would be happy to send a photo if someone could help identify them. Thank you.


From karen kennedy:
Is it poss. to e-mail you photos of bricks that used to be the floor of a carriage house. They weigh 17 lbs ea measure: 10" x 51/2" x 5". Want to know their history. Interested in selling them Thanks!


From Vincent Morgillo:
I have lived in Wallingford, CT for the last 30 years and recently while digging in the yard found an old MURRAY brick. Did some research can't seem to come up with any Murray Brickmakers companies. Prior to our house being built there was an old barn. I have a few pictures that I'd like to share. Please let me know how to send them over. I'd like to get a little history, if possible. Thank you, Vin

A Reply from Fred Rieck:
There are a number of Murrays which manufactured brick, in both NY and CT. With out having seen your MURRAY , Vincent, I tend to think that your MURRAY may have been made in Westchester County's Town of Cortlandt. predicated on MURRAY marked scrap found in the area Just which Murray made them, I have not been able to determine. Fred Rieck


From Adam Gasperini:
I have been removing an old chimney form a house that I think was made in the mid 1800s the brick had the name Don.B CO do you have any info on this company and or the years that they operated.

Webmaster Note:
There is a DON. B Co (Donnelly Brick Co.) described on Our Collection Page (A-L)


From Karen:
i dug up two evens & howard fire bricks out of my backyard recently. i found them a a foot deep. they are very heavy. i believe there was a house that used to be where i found these bricks, because there was a very bad tornado in 1949 that destroyed alot of property here in warren, arkansas.


From Ron:
Found some bricks with "Griffing" Eastern Long Island. Any information welcome

A reply from Fred Rieck:
I suspect it is one of several brick yards that operated in Suffolk County between Bridgehamton and Sag Harbor.

Webmaster Note:
I found this on the Web: There is a "3.5-mile abandoned railroad spur that from 1870 to 1938 connected Bridgehampton to Sag Harbor’s Long Wharf ... the connection between the spur and the Round Pond icehouse facilitated the shipping of ice to New York City... the Griffing Brick Works and several other industries ... flourished along the railroad spur."
(To see the source page Click Here.)


From Dennis:
I have found a brick with the word BRUSH recessed in the face of the brick. Can anyone tell me about it?

A reply from Fred Rieck:
The Brush Brothers were an early Buffalo, NY mfgr. Frank Clement has some history on this company with the brick on his website.Click Here.


From Dwight B Lindley:
I have bricks that say : LAD RIO BRAVO mexico, Butler, Diamond, Ferris, Houston, also a Houston brick with the S backwards, Groesbeck, Lucas, various Thurber bricks, any info would be helpful. thank you


From Dan Field:
dan calling from nabco country, have come across early twentieths century site made block here in north adams ma. you know any one who needs some of these


From Rosemary H. Jackson:
I'm looking for some Washburn bricks. Know where I might find some?


From Irene Francour:
I have a calvert brick mold very old in good shape could you tell me what it might possibly be worth. or more info. thank you


From Robert Protzmann:
I am looking for information on Oschwald's Brickyards in the vicinity of Cliffwood, NJ (near the raritan Bay). My wife's grandfather, and numerous other relatives, mostly immigrants worked there from ca. 1900-1930's. I am also looking for maps of the area at that time period, which would show the brickyards, and road names. Apparently all the roads that they lived on before 1930 have since changed their names - formerly Brickyard Lane, Amboy Road. Any information would be helpful.


hi thanks-very interesting fun site! this brick given to me by my Mother -with the story that a couple of generations back her family owned part of Dennings Point Brickworks. i have finally verified this through the tax rolls and a book in the Beacon library The History of Dutchess Co.
--Stephen Saunters (my g'g grandfather) and Joseph Lomas owned that property in 1865-1866.

April '08:

Jessica Hall writes:
I recently found a pile of "Gardner" bricks in excellent condition. I live in Massachusetts and these seem to have come out of an old foundation. Just wondering if these are collectible and how would I link with people who collect them and might want them? I plan to keep some as they were found in Gardner, Ma. which is interesting. Thanks

Webmaster note:
Jessica, I had similar thoughts when I started collecting bricks just a few years ago. That's why I started this web site: to help collectors learn more about their finds and link with others who might want to trade. Way, way back in these pages are comments from a Mike in Peekskill who is a rose gardener and for fun was looking for ROSE and GARDNER bricks! Type GARDNER in one of our Search boxes and you find all the pages with Gardner info. When you open a specific page, hit CTRL-F, type GARDNER in that box, and you will find the exact place(es) on that page where "Gardner" appears. If you want to contact someone who has posted here, use our Contact Form and we'll try to put you in touch.


Walt Giersbach comments:
So glad to have found your site. Thought I was the only guy crazy enough to collect bricks, starting with Sayre & Fisher when living in N.J. Dug up Donnelly bricks in my backyard in Danbury, Connecticut in '95. Moving back now from Cambridge, MA, I'm bringing a Stiles & Hart brick found here on Huron Ave. Will see if I have anything to add to your collection.

Webmaster note:
Walt, thank you. Your kind remarks are appreciated!
Don B.


Michael Misch writes:
I have bricks of the kind: DPBW, MARTIN, JJJ, OXFORD, HUTTON, KING, KANE, JMC, EMPIRE, ETC, I wonder if they are worth anything? Thanks,


From John Marks:
Do you happen to know the name of the brick factory in Pittsburg, CA on Parkside Dr. that made bricks from the early 1920's until the late 1950's ? Thank you.

Webmaster note:
Fred and I know there are some brick "gurus" out there. Share your knowledge. If you have an answer for John, or anyone else here, please use our CONTACT FORM.


Fred Kabbel writes:
Hi. I was back in Hell's Kitchen last week and I re-visited a demolition site I'd been to earlier. I was suprised at the variety of old bricks I was able to recover (with their permision of course) from their dumpster. I like to hear your comments on any or all of the bricks in the picture. Thanks as always from a soon to be IBCA member.

Webmaster Note: Fred sent us a photo which will be posted soon.

We may know of some local collectors who may want to trade for a few of those M&Ls and MW & Cos
--Fred Rieck

Lloyd Armstrong comments:
Hello, I found a brick when removing a chimney from a farmhouse in Western Massachusetts. The text is:
O. Annese & Son
Woodbridge N J
(text is weathered) I can't find any reference to this company. Any help would be appreciated.(When company was in business,etc.) Thanks.

Hi Lloyd, I'm not familiar with Annese .... You indicated that the brick's text was weathered - is it possible that that the name is spelled Anness ? I am wondering if your brick may be another variation of the several "Anness" manufacturing operations that Anness may have been envolved in - Anness & Lyle,. Anness Hollow tile & Clay Co., Anness & Potter, for examples. These were all in Woodbridge, NJ . We may be able to approximate a time of manufacture by the style of the brand mark lettering. Sorry I can't be of more help.
--Fred Rieck


From James P:
Hi i have found bricks containing the word KING GEORGE V 1910 and B & B the & is in robe style.

Sounds like a commemorative brick but I am not sure what you mean by the ampersand being in robe style.
--Don B.


Mike McIntosh writes:
First let me say I have just discovered your web site and have enjoyed it very much. I grew up in the Hocking Valley region of Ohio and have been around many of old brick plants in that area, Nelsonville, Greendale, Natco, Shawnee, General Clay, and Claycraft. I know there use to be a lot more brick companies in Ohio and would like to find out more about them. Is there any information about these old companies?

Hi Mike. Indeed, Ohio, and the Hocking Valley was a tremendous producer of brick. If you are near any Ohio city library, I'm confident they should be able to "load you up" on Ohio brick history. Ohio has taken a great deal of pride in its brick producing heritage, and doesn't appear to have kept it a secret, either.

Here's a great web site on the History of the Hocking Valley Brick Industry.


From Racquel:
I have some whiteselle cherry reds, corsicana bricks. i know they are every old I would like to know how old they are and I also heard that they were collectable. Some one told me that there was a person who was buying them. Your help will be appricated thank you

Racquel, the Whiteselle Cherry Reds are a product of Texas. Texas has had a very large number of brick manufactures (and lots of collectors to collect them). I've generally seen some for trade at the various IBCA (International Brick Collectors Association) swap meets.
--Fred Rieck

Found this on the Web: "There were four variations of the Whiteselle brand: Whiteselle-Corsicana, Whiteselle-Corsicana with a plus mark in a circle, Whiteselle-Cherry Reds (incut), and Whiteselle-Cherry Reds (in an inset plate)." For the complete article Click Here.
The Whiteselle brickyard was on South 15th St. in Corsicana, Texas. Here's a web site on Corsicana Brick.
--Webmaster Don


Julie Porter writes:
I have a brick that I got from a mill from 1880 with the letters DMH on it can you tell me what that stands for? thank you Julie

Julie, so far we are stumped on this one. It may be helpful to know what state it was found in. ....also is it a fire brick or building brick? Can you send us a photo?
--Webmaster Don


I found a brick with the letters G G A on it. i am having a problem locating info on this manufacturer, i found it at the bottom of a reservoir in brewster ny. any info would be greatly appreciated. i am new to brick history. It did not have a "frog"

Hi, your brick was made by Garret G Allison of Haverstraw. The Allison family had a long line of brickmakers in the Haverstraw area. There is an Allison Street in Haverstraw. Garret is listed in this NY Times article dated July 12, 1853. His name comes up again in an article about the dedication of a Haverstraw cemetery on Thursday, July 7th 1853 in David Cole's History of Rockland County, New York.
--Webmaster Don


Diane Tobin writes:
When were Widemire bricks made? While I was digging at the site of a glass factory which operated from 1876-1888, I found a brick stamped "Widemire." It appears to be a fire brick (or fireclay? brick)and I am hoping it was part of the glassworks furnace. Did Widemire produce bricks from 1876-1888?

Fred Rieck replies:
Ms. Tobin, according to research done by Karl Guerke, The WIDEMIRE brand was made by the Harbison- Walker Refractories Co. of Pennsylvania. durning the years of 1921 -1942. ... perhaps earlier and later. One thing to remember is that firebrick may have to be replaced from time to time and the brick found after a plant closes may not be the same brick used in the original building of the kilns or fire boxes.


Angela Thiele writes:
We recently purchased proprerty in McKinney, Tx and unearthed an old well. The bricks lining the well are terra cotta in color, about the same size as a regular brick of today and have a recessed (indented) diamond shape on one side. Do you have any idea of the age and manufacturer of these bricks? Thanks!


Louise Goldstein comments:
We are trying to get more information about Cary Brick who built the Saratoga Spa State Park, Saratoga Springs, NY that opened July 26,1935.

Fred Rieck replies:
William N. Cary is listed as the President of the Cary Brick Co. in the 1903 edition of the Ballston Spa, Mechanicville, Stillwater and Schuylerville directory. A Cary ad, placed in the 1926 Mechanicville City Directory, indicates that Cary has yards in both Cohoes and Newton Hook, with offices in the Mead Building (Mechanicville). Cary was still listed in 1936 but not in 1940. Sorry that I can't be more helpful.

A reply from William:
Regarding cary brick's for the buliding of saratoga spa,i believe the willian h. cary brickyard was located in newton hook,ny,was called the empire brick company,my grandfather worked there and my family lived and (lives) across the rr tracks from the old brickmill

A reply from Fred Rieck:
Yes, the Empire Brick Co. yard was located roughly two miles south of the Cary (Newton Hook) yard. While Empire was it operation, the place was called Empire. Prior to Empire setting up operations there, the place was operated by the Walsh Brothers, and , according to the 1907 Hudson River Telephone Directory, the site was formerly called Walshville.


I'm e-mailing you a photo (attached), of a brick I found in my yard and as I'm not at this time a brick collector and really don't know much about bricks at all, I was wondering if this is a Graves manufactured Brick or a Chemical company's brick? Do you know anything about this brick I found ? It is Stamped : Graves Chemical Bham, Ala. Thank You for your time, Regards Sharon


Hi Sharon, GRAVES B'HAM is well known among collectors as an Alabama manufacturer of street paving brick. The term "Chemical" quite likely, refers to a special formulation in the clay, or its treatment in the manufacturing process, all of which is intended to make the brick more resistant to the "environment" in which it is expected to be used. This may include stricter control of the brick's porosity, size, and surface finish.
--Fred Rieck


From Fred Kabbel:
Hi. I found 2 bricks in the old Hells Kitchen section of Manhattan. One says "ATLAS" and the other says "ALPHA". Both have deep frogs and raised letters. Can you tell me anything about them? Thanks. Love your site!

Hello Fred. The ATLAS was made in the early 1900s in Hudson, NY. You will find more info on ATLAS on This Page:
The ALPHA was made by the ALPHA Brick & Holding Co. in Glasco, NY which faced backrupcy proceedings in 1918: NY Times Article
Thanks for visiting the web site!
--Don B., Webmaster


Shirley Walker writes:
I have bricks from my dads farm in Missour. Laclede King , Evans Howard, St.Louis5, Mexico Ref. Co. Mo Rex. Want to know when made and any other information please.


From cap lesesne:
pls advise on where i can find kane bricks.

KANE bricks are no longer made. You may be able to find some near the brickyard site:
654 Newfield St.
Middletown, CT
Otherwise look for them at dump sites demolition areas, landfill, etc.
In February, we got this note from Mark Falco:
"I worked summers at the Michael Kane Brick Company of Middletown, Ct. during the late 60's and early 70's while going to college, We used the stove kiln system pictured in your site. The yard was "modernized" with modern dryers, but the ancient technology, the old clay stamping machine and the drying racks remained on site. The wire-cut bricks eventually put the company out of business. I was always impressed by the number of job titles associated with the process from clay bank to shipping the loaded product. There is nothing to compare with the colors and textures from the wood-fired brick."
--Don B., Webmaster


From Nicolás:
Hello i from argentina and i have a very old brick is similar like this. the brick has the impression PETRE BAUDOUR. if you are interest in my brick, respond. sorry for my poor inglish


Webmaster Note:
You can respond to Nicolas (or any other person here) by using our Contact Form.


Jason Said:
I was recently fishing at a hard to reach stretch at the 18-mile creek. I found a brick that says "Hall & Sons, Buffalo" The Brick looks very old, similar in color and font to some of the really old brick pictures you have on your site. Do you know how old it might be?

Well, according to this NY Times article, Hall & Sons was around as early as 1867.
Edward J. Hall was a businessman who had worked for the Perth-Amboy Terra Cotta Company in New Jersey, and started his own brick company, Hall and Sons at 69 Tonawand St. in Buffalo, N.Y.
--Don B., Webmaster


Jeff Barker comments:
Hello, I found a brick with the name "QUAKER" on it. Do you have any history on it? Thanks


From Leonard J. Jacobs:
In 1914, work began on a 2 mile stretch of rural road in Pine Rock Twp. Ogle C. IL A few years ago it was covereed by asphalt. I have on of the bricks. The first letter I can't read but appears to be -urington Paver. I will try to get to read your fine website and maybe I will find your answer there. But I hope you can enlighten me about the Pavers.

What you have is a Purington Paver.
Here are two great "Purington" web sites to visit:
Purington Brickyards
Purington Brick History
--Don B., Webmaster

March '08:

Richard Florio comments:
Didn't see anything on the website matching these bricks, so thought you might want a pic and some info, but maybe you can enlighten me further? This brick is from my hometown of Huntington, Long Island, NY. It came from one of the outbuildings of a 1907 Gold Coast Mansion built for Ronald Conklin. The Mansion itself burned about 18 or 20 years ago, but one corner, several outbuildings and the carriage house still remain. The extant corner of the main house has these 'West Neck' bricks visible, so I am quite certain of the date. The 200 Acres or so are on a bluff overlooking Cold Spring Harbor and Oyster Bay, as well as what is today 'West Neck' beach, which is where I believe these bricks came from. I have found broken bricks their while shore-clamming. This area was renowned for it's clay dating back to pre-colonial times. I'll have to stop by the local historical society and see if I can dig up some more info on the local brick industry, but I do know it was large, as was the sand and gravel industry, with NYC only 40 miles west. Other bricks found along side these were NJ bricks from Sayreville (Marked just S & F, without the Co.) By the way, I live across Huntington Harbor on East Neck, but I have yet to find any brick marked as such. Maybe someday!

A reply from Fred Rieck:
Hi Richard, the West Neck brand mark is attributed to C. H. Jones & Co of Long Island, by Dan DeNoyelles, a former Rockland County historian and author. Mr. DeNoyelles is a descendent of a multigenerational family of brick manufacturers and has produced a listing of brick manufacturers and their brick marks. A listing is included in his book Within These Gates, a story about the brick-making industry in Rockland County. Whereas an excellent resource, there are a number of Long Island brick manufacturers and trade names which, in my opinion, are waiting to be listed or matched up.

According to maps I have seen, Jones, and his brick manufacturing neighbor, The Crossman Brothers, were located along the east shore of Cold Spring Harbor, south of the thin strip of water separating Caumsett from Lloyd Harbor. At some point in time Dr. O. Jones become involved with the business. What would be interesting to find out, is if Crossman Brothers produced a brick with their name or trademark?

On another note, there were several manufacturers located in the area of Fresh Ponds, north of Locust Grove: Long Island Brick Co, Prevost Bros., Sammis, George Longbotham, and Henry Brown. Would you happen toknow if there was a connection between L.I. Brick Co. and Prevost Bros? Did Longbotham make a marked brick? ... and who may have made the brick with three, double outline stars as a trade mark? Any information would be helpful. Fred Rieck


Susan Petrie's comments: your site. I've read some about laborers who worked in brickyards and wonder if girls and women were employed by the yards, too. I'm up in Albany and was recently in an adandoned factory of some sort that had brick floors on the second storey. Seemed really unusual. Any reasons? Also, I have found bricks stamped "Troy." Were they made this far north? One more: does anyone know a total (or approximate) number of brickyards that the Hudson River helped sustain? I gather the last one finally closed in 2002. Thanks for any info. Best, Susan

A Reply from Fred Rieck:
Hello Sue. Generally speaking, it is doubtful that women worked along with men in the production part of making brick because of the dirt and weight of the materials handled. Building kilns in which the brick were baked (burned in the talk of the trade) generally required that a quantity of brick be tossed together up to, or dropped down to another worker who was on another level (tier) of kiln construction. That doesn't mean that somewhere in history, a woman had not done this kind of heavy and laborious labor.

Having said this, there have been a number of women that have owned and operated brickyards. According to a listing of brick manufactures compiled by Dan DeNoyelles, a descendent of a Haverstraw brick making family, the following women, (and there are more) Mary Buckley of Grassy Point 1885, Mrs. E.L. Chrystie of Newburgh, Mrs. Frank Dunnigan 1902, Mrs. A.Fisher of Verplanck, Mrs. William Bennett, and the Budd sisters of Dutchess Junction, are among them. It appears that a number of the ladies inherited these business' when their husbands (or father in the Budd's case) passed away. The Budd sisters carried on operations very successfully for many years..

The TROY brick you mentioned was made in Troy NY by the Troy Brick Co. I recall reading that there were about 110 brickyards in operation along the Hudson River in the early 1900's These yards ranged from Staten Island to Mechanicville, NY and there were still a few more yards from there, north to Plattsburgh.

Sue, you mentioned a second storey with a brick floor. Would you know the name of the building or what business it was used for? Sometimes tile and enameled brick were used where sanitary conditions must be conformed to ... breweries, hospitals food prep and etc.
--Fred Rieck


Dr. John Parker writes:
Brick with "HEATHERY KNOWE PATENT GLASGOW" frogged in a recess. I am looking for information on when this was made, what company, etc. I have done extensive web searches discovering the community of Heathery Knowe near Glasgow Scotland. But no info on brickworks. Thanks in advance for your help. John


Ryan comments:
I was just reviewing family heritage with my mother. I was told that my great grandfather's family owned a brick company in Berlin Ct. They had moved from Haverstraw NY around the turn of the century. She told me that there was a church in Kensington CT. that contained their bricks. Just curious thanks. What an interesting hobby.


From Greg Perez:
comments: I love to see your idea of preserving history, I have an historic building in Peekskill, NY and I need to restore the facade and some brick needs replacement, however I do have a sample of the original brick and the name ends in "ES" could you tell me where and who made it?

A reply from web site "guru" Fred Rieck:
Greg, it would be more helpful if you had more of the brick. We could suggest HEDGES (Cornwall, NY), STAPLES (Kingston, NY), and some Connecticut manufactures as STILES and SHARES. These brands are "off the top of my head", so to speak, and there are others as well.. The HEDGES and STAPLES seem more likely. ... sorry I can't be of more help. - Fred Rieck


Inge Aiken writes:
Howdy! I have been scavenging old bricks from a local landfill in Albany, NY. My initial goal was to collect the old brick to learn masonry and brick the walls of our basement to look like an old foundation. Besides the fun in learning masonry, I have been fascinated w/ the origin of these brick. (I guess that's what happens when you spend so much time loading, unloading, cleaning, and installing bricks!) My question is that most of the bricks are: A.H.&Sons. Can anyone ID these brick for me? An internet search produced a brick company, A.H.Curtis and Sons, in Georgia. Can anyone confirm this? Some other bricks I couldn't find on your locator are M&R, RB, JM, CARY and a few others that I will need to double check. Thanks so much for such an informative website!!

Fred Rieck replies:
Hi Inga, bricks can be interesting, can't they? The AH&S is the mark of Alfred Hunter & Son. The name, in this format, shows up in the Albany City Directory about 1895..and was still listed in 1921. Al Hunter was listed as a brickmaker prior to 1895 as early as 1875. The AH&S yard, may have been at the corner of N.Pearl and Van Woert. Their brick appears to have been made primarily for local consumption as the brick marks tend to be mostly found in the Albany vicinity and not to too far beyond.
The other four brands you mention are, too, essentially "local" bricks. However, M&R, RB and JM brand letters were ALSO used by three "down river" manufacturers. M&R and RB in Rockland County and JM (John Morton) in Westchester. Since the down river manufacturers had enough of a time meeting the needs of the NY and NJ market its most likely your brick were made locally. The CARY (John Cary, president and CEO) was made at either the Newton Hook (near Stockport Stuyvesant) or the Cohoes plant. Your JM is very likely that of John Murray of Cohoes. The M&R and RB brands I'm less certain of. Moore & Riberty and Rennselaer Brick (Co) come to mind. A photo of the two would be helpful in comparing them with the Rockland County brandmarks.
Inga, you mentioned a land fill in the Albany area. Would it be possible to get a location for it? On the theory that the landfill would be a repository of local brick, we may be able to look through it and see what styles of brick marks may be found there and compare them. ... in this case, to the Rockland brands for which we may be more certain of. Brick ID is still a work in progress
- Fred Rieck

From Diane Dalton:
While out for a walk, I ran across a pile of demolished bricks embossed with the word "Calvert". I have been unable to find out anything about these bricks, i.e. age, manufacturer. Please help clear up the mystery.

A reply from your Webmaster:
Per "Brick Brands of the United States" compiled by Jim Graves of the I.B.C.A., the CALVERT brand was made Victor Cushwa & Sons in Williamsport, MD. Cushwa was bought out by the Redland Brick Inc and today has merged into Belden Brick.

From the "Quad - State Business Journal," May 1999:

Baltimore's Camden Yards and Ravens Stadium blend as comfortably into their urban landscape as the older structures around them, but much of their exterior beauty comes from the rural countryside of western Maryland. The brick for the major league baseball and football stadiums was made at Redland Brick Inc.'s Cushwa Plant in Williamsport, Md.

Like most U.S. brick manufacturers, Redland's Cushwa plant is located near its raw materials: high grade clay with good ceramic properties and shale. Although shale is a sedimentary rock, it is formed from compressed mud and chemicals similar to clay so it is a common material for bricks.. The Cushwa plant has been producing bricks for over a century, and its 300 acres contain enough clay and shale for 100 more years. The brickyard was started in 1872 by Victor Cushwa and remained a family-owned business until 1987 when it was bought by a British company, Steetley PLC., which also owned two other American brick manufacturers, KF in Connecticut and Harmar, located near Pittsburgh.

In 1992, Steetley was acquired by Redland, PLC, another British company which at that time was the largest brick company in the world. The next year, all three American brick companies were consolidated into Redland Brick Inc. In 1996, Ohio-based Belden Brick Co. purchased Redland Brick Inc.

Today, Redland Brick Inc. has annual sales of $30 million and employs 240 people; 116 people work at the Cushwa plant. Redland's corporate office is in Williamsport, in a Williamsburg-style building built in 1973 of (what else!) brick. When a two-story addition was built last year, the new hand-moulded rose-colored bricks matched perfectly.


Terence Gower writes:
Hello, I am a researcher looking for a picture of what has been described as a "salmon-colored" brick produced by Champlain Brick Company --- I believe it's from their Cherry Valley range. Has anyone seen this item? Thanks!


From Ronald Jobin:
I have an ancestor, George Holden, who according to the 1880 census lived in Stony Point, NY and worked n a Brickyard along with many of his neighbors.. He was 23 at the time. According to a family anecdote, the bricks were used in the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge or one of the othe bridges spanning the East River. Can you shed any light on this for me. Thanks


From Daniel Hornbeck:
I am by marriage related to the John Jova family of Roseton, NY. My older brother worked one summer for the yards in 1962? Recently, I was living in Floral Park, NY and had bricks removed for A/C installation when I noticed the bricks had the Jova trademark[JJJ] on them. I have one, maybe to add to your collection of photos.

From Webmaster Don B.:
We'd love to post your photo here and thanks for sharing your family info. If you have any more history of the Jova yards, let us know.


Greg Perez writes:
I would like to know where I can find red brick made in 1940's near Peekskill NY, I have a historic buldg that I need to replace some bricks, I have an sample with a name on it. :Your help will be apresiated.


From cathy bennett:
I have some bricks from the brick plant in my back yard. the Sapulpa Pressed Brick Plant was purchaged by Nicholas Hermes in 1925...I have bricks stamped with Sapulpa Brick Plant. I may look under the house to see if any of the original bricks are under there. I live in his house now.

Webmaster Note:
Per Jim Graves of the IBCA, the Sapulpa Pressed Brick Company was in Sapulpa, OK

From "FRISCO SYSTEM MAGAZINE," December 1902:

While the thriving town of Sapulpa, in the northern part of the Creek Nation, has numerous natural advantages upon which to found a hope, nay, a certainty, of future prosperity, recent developments lead to the belief that it will eventually become a great center for the manufacture of brick and kindred products. There is now no doubt that the town lies in the center of what is probably the largest and best shale deposit in the world. Thorough prospecting shows the shale belt to include an area of 15 to 20 square miles, and to contain enough shale to rebuild the cities of New York and London, should those centers of population be leveled to the ground by some overwhelming calamity. This is only another way of saying that the shale beds of Sapulpa are practically inexhaustible.

While the existence of an excellent grade of shale in various parts of the Territory has been known for many years, conditions were not until recently such that any advantage could be taken of the fact. A shale bed in the wilderness is of no particular value, but one in close proximity to good railroad facilities, and in the heart of a country undergoing the most rapid development the world has ever seen, will not long be overlooked. The extension of the Prisco System into Oklahoma and the southwest, the construction of the Red River division of the same system from Sapulpa into the heart of Texas, and on to the Rio Grande, and the preparations to extend a branch north through the Osage country and on into Kansas, now assures this locality an outlet by rail to all directions. Under these circumstances, a number of enterprising residents of Sapulpa decided to learn something more definitve as to the extent and value of the deposits.

An organization was formed for the purpose of prospecting the country thoroughly. A wide range of territory was covered, which established the fact that while shale was to be found in large quantities in many localities of that region, that found in the immediate vicinity of Sapulpa combined advantages of superior quality and quantity, as well as better shipping facilities. This having been ascertained by surface indications it was determined to discover the real extent and nature of the beds, and a company was formed for thnt purpose, in which Fred Pfendler, J. A. Boyd and F. T. Watson were the prime movers. Thus, less than a year ago, systematic development was commenced. Two prospect holes were drilled, each more than 1,600 feet deep. Except for a few thin layers of sandstone, both these wells began and ended in shale. Another hole drilled in the hope of finding artesian water, after passing through 8O0 feet of shale, struck a fair quality of oil, running from five to seven barrels a day. The fact is that the town of Sapulpa, and the entire surrounding country lies over an immense deposit of shale of unknown depth. Just in the edge of town rises a great hill, more than 100 feet above the level of the landscape, and about 40 acres in extent. It is a solid mass of shale. One blow with a pick will turn up the shale on any part of the hill. There is no superfluous dirt to be removed. The hill has simply to be tunneled and the shale can be stoped directly into cars. This is not the only shale hill in the limits of the belt. There are many others, and one or two are even larger. The huge, conical upheavals a few miles south of Sapulpa, from which the town of Mounds takes its name, are known to be composed entirely of shale. The mounds do not lie so conveniently to the railroad as the Sapulpa hill, but to run a switch to them would be easy and inexpensive. Still farther south, near Weleetka, the Red River division of the Frisco System cuts for narly half a mile through a solid bank of blue shale

It was only necessary to call attention to these facts to secure the capital necessary to turn them to practical value. A few months ago the Sapulpa Pressed Brick Company was organized, and immediately took steps to begin operations. Within a few weeks after the company was organized, it had erected a plant and was turning out brick. The output of the plant had already reached 50,000 every ten hours, and a total of over 2,000,000 have been manufactured and distributed. Recently J. A. Daly and C. B. Ritchey, practical brick manufacturers formerly of Nevada, Mo., have secured a controlling interest in the plant, and expect to more than double the capacity as soon as the necessary machinery can be put in. Experts who have examined these shale deposits pronounce them to be of exceptional quality and variety. When exposed to the air, the shale crumbles naturally. Three varieties--yellow, gray and blue--are found. Bricks manufactured from it take a beautiful color and polish. Comparatively limited as have been the operations of the company up to the present time they have amply demonstrated the value of its product, which has found a ready sale in open market competition. Preparations to add machinery for the manufacture of tiles and vitrified brick are now under way. Other companies are being projected, for, while the Sapulpa Pressed Brick company is first on the ground, the field is inexhaustible. There is room for a hundred such companies, so far as a supply of material is concerned, and there is reason in the prophecy, so frequently made by residents of Sapulpa, that the shale belt will, in time, owing to sheer excess of natural advantages, contribute largely in supplying the vast amount of building material neccssary to the upbuilding of the great undeveloped empire in the southwest.

February '08:

Brian writes:
I recently bought an old house in seekonk ma and found some old bricks. at first i was like ungh, but then i stumbled appon one that really grab'd my attention. it was a hollow brick with the letters DB Co with a enclosed cross in the center. i later found out that it was an original duffeny brick from possibly the the late 1800s as it looks to be abbout 100 years old or so. the fact that its hollow is what really captivates me. if anyone reads this and knows a little bit more and can enlighten me please contact me. thank you and good night.


From Dorothy Zamora:
I am an archaeologist and just finished a project in New Mexico in a coal mining town and found red brick with a hollow middle. What type of brick is this and do you know what they date?


Dan from New Jersey writes:
Does anyone know if certain companies had areas that only they could sell bricks to? because about 95% of the bricks i find in my town are either shultz, washburn, or tri-co. i did find a few that i can't identify though, maybe someone could help me out. M&LW..BR&S..NM&CO..R&S..T&G..HG any help would be great.

Fred Rieck replies:
Many times, particularly in locations away from large cities, smaller manufacturers may be more inclined to meet the needs of their locality. In the situation where you see so many Shultz, Washburn and Tri-Co brick, it may be more a matter of when in time that area was developed. Shultz, and Washburn were by in large upstate NY manufacturers which became big producers for the downstate market at a time when the downstate producers were folding their tents, so-to-speak. In essence, many of the producers near the NY metro area (and I am lumping northern NJ into this market) had gone out of business because their sources of clay had petered out.. From all the WASHBURNs I've seen in Jersey, one may (briefly) think, they owned the market. ROSE was another BIG producer that had connections and influence in attempting to control general manufacture of brick in relation to market demand.

To ID some of your finds: M&LW = Mordecai and Lucien Washburn (Grassy Point, NY), BR&S = Bennett Rowan & Scott (West Haverstraw), R&S, Roan & Scott or Redner & Strang (both of Haverstraw), NM& Co = N. Mehrhoff (Little Ferry,NJ) T&G = (Trevianus & Gardner Little ferry,NJ), HG = (Henry Gardner Little Ferry,NJ). The NY brand IDs are attributed to the work of Dan DeNoyelles, a Rockland County Historian. The NJ IDs are attributed to the compilations of Jim Graves, the librarian for the International Brick Collectors Association.
--Fred Rieck


From Greg Craddock:
I have a Tiffany & Co. Chicago brick and a brick from a building at Western University. I was wondering if they had any value at all. Thanks,


Carol Todd writes:
Do you have any information (or know where I might possible search) on the brickmakers of Orange County, especially at "Cronk's Clove" or "Mother Cronk's Cove", in the narrow valley between Storm King Mtn and Crow Nest? They were named Kronkhyte or Cronk, and were probably in business before the 1840's. I am in Texas, so not near any local NY sources of information. Thank you!

A reply from Webmaster Don:
Hi Carol, Fred & I haven't found any info on brickmaking at Cronk's Clove but I did come across this page (which you may already be aware of).

Fred writes: I was able to pull up some USGS survey maps covering the Storm King and Crow's Nest topography (1892 West Point Quadrangle) ne. I believe I can see the valley between the two Mounts, and it has a stream running through it to the Hudson. I see no evidence of any brickyard in it, nor any structure in that valley. Please note that the valley isn't ID'd on my map. However, across the Hudson R., on the eastern shore, just south of Breakneck Mtn. is the site of the former Moser Brick Yard. Then north of Storm King, on the western shore, lies Cornwall-on-Hudson at which the Hedges Brick yard was located. North of that is New Windsor which had several brick yards over the years -- all along the Hudson River. There is a book entitled Hudson River Guidebook, Arthur G. Adams, 1996 (ISBN 0823216799) which makes reference to Mother Cronk Valley, but there is no mention of brickmaking there. Another resource may be to contact the Orange County Historical Society at 21 Clove Furnace Drive, Arden, New York 10910 FAX: 1-845-351-4696. The "Society" has a research library. ... though I haven't visited it - yet.. My "at hand" information doesn't go back much before 1895. That's about all I can suggest.

Hi Don, Thank you -- and thank Fred, too -- for taking the time to answer. William T. Howell, in his book on the Hudson Highlands, mentions that the Cronks "conducted the old brickyard," I believe. Very likely, it went out of business 150 years ago, so probably nothing much remains. There was a CCC Camp there in the 1930's. Thanks again for your help,
--Carol Todd


Mark writes:
Hello, I am working on a small interior project in my home and wondering the best way to "clean" the reclaimed Cream city or Chicago bricks that I have before I use them as a veneer on my basement wall. They are pretty grimey and I have tried Oxy Clean....should I try muriatic acid???

A reply from Fred R.:
Hello Mark, if it's the residual mortar and cement, that you wish to remove - scrub the brick in clean water to get off the dirt. Then let the brick soak in clean water for a couple hours to let it "fill" with water. Now you can dip the brick (or just the surfaces you wish to clean), in muriatic acid. To be safe, wear rubber gloves and goggles. ALSO ... be careful and not inhale the fumes from this stuff (meaning the acid). Just how long you should leave the brick in the acid bath depends on how much mortar is on the brick. If its a new bottle of acid, you are using, let it fizzle for 10 minutes , then remove the brick from the bath and see how clean it is. Being wary of how the brush bristles will spatter the acid, You may wish to scrub the brick with a brush under water to wash off the loose cement and mortar. If there is still an objectionable spot, dip it again. If the "soil" is tar or paint - I'm still looking for an easy way to remove that material, myself.
--Fred Rieck


This from Leslie Smith:
Hello..My great-grandfather was the "Babcock" in the Moore & Babcock Brick Co. of Albany New York. I would love to have a brick from the company M & B. Would you advise me on how I could obtain such an item. Thanks

A reply from Gregory K James:
Leslie, my great aunt was Anna James Babcock, wife of Joshua Babcock and my great grandfather Howard James, worked in the brickyard for over 30 years. I was wondering if you had any luck in tracking down a brick, as I would also like to acquire one for my father. I would also like to hear from you in regards to the family. Thanks and hope to hear from you!

I am forwarding your email to Leslie Smith.
Don B., Webmaster

I received an email from Leslie-this is fantastic! Thanks Don-and thanks for putting together a great website!


Lili writes:
Hello, i would like to find out the pricing of new bricks small and medium or the charge per sq ft is also fine. thanks.

A reply from Webmaster Don:
Look here for a company near you or look for Google ads from brick companies sprinkled thruout this web site.


More from Dave H:
When I was out and about today, I saw a brick with the raised corners that said MAY-AUG PA: If it's a mystery, it was found in an empty lot next to the old Lackawanna train terminal in Jersey City. The railroad has been defunct for decades so it may have been dumped. It may have read NAY-AUG PA but I assumed those were months. Once again, I left almost everything where it was but I took one home: It was the only one like it mixed in with hundreds of WASHBURNs. I assume it's a Washburn variant not listed on your site.

A reply from Webmaster Don:
IBCA authority Jim Graves lists the maker of your paver brick as Peter Stipp in Nay Aug, PA (just outside of Scranton).


John Renwick writes:
I have two bricks which I picked up when the execution chamber in Barlinnie Prison, Glasgow was being converted to normal cells. They are stamped BARLINNIE and they date from circa 1882 which is when the prison was constructed using convict labour. I was a guard at the prison for most of my working life. I assume the bricks must be rare as it is not often that major structural work is done in the prison. Is there a market for these?


From Ottavio Cinelli:
Today my son and I found several S&FBC stamped bricks in a creekbed here in N.J. One is in pristine shape and I suspect there are more. I was wondering if they might be worth anything. Regardless, I will save them anyway because I am a history buff, but any information you can provide would be extremely appreciated. I saw them listed here as Sayer and Fisher from Sayerville, NJ. Thank-you,


From Mark Falco:
I worked summers at the Michael Kane Brick Company of Middletown, Ct. during the late 60's and early 70's while going to college, We used the stove kiln system pictured in your site. The yard was "modernized" with modern dryers, but the ancient technology, the old clay stamping machine and the drying racks remained on site. The wire-cut bricks eventually put the company out of business. I was always impressed by the number of job titles associated with the process from clay bank to shipping the loaded product. There is nothing to compare with the colors and textures from the wood-fired brick.

From Webmaster Don:
Thanks Mark for sharing this!


More from Dave H:
I was on the Hudson River in Jersey City, NJ at the end of the long defunct Morris Canal. I'm just speculating but the bricks there could've come from upstate NY, somewhere local in NJ or eastern PA if they arriived via the canal. I'll try to get the tide info as it needs to be at low tide preferably early in the morning when nobody's around. One guy asked me if I was searching for gold. I'd love to find a gold brick!

Here's an update.  I went back and couldn't locate anything named Mallory or even Malley but I did see a half brick with LLEY on it so I'm guessing I saw a Malley and got the name wrong.  Unfortunately, I probably made a mistake with with the CMJ too as I couldn't locate that one either but I did find an imprint in mortar:

After working it out on paper that's JMC not CMJ so I probably saw a JMC and transposed the letters.  In addition to what I mentioned earlier, there is also Garner, Bennet, S&FBCo and Brockway all of which I perceived as common.
Now for some stuff I thought was a bit harder to come by.  This brick was taken from the rubble of the Lorillard Tobacco Company warehouse:
I took this brick home and would like to know more about it if possible.  It looks like a backwards A C to me but the C could be be a G.
This site says it was built in 1866 but there were an awful lot of Wasburns there too with frogs so maybe it wasn't all built at the same time.
The artists lost the battle and this site will become a 50+ story skyscraper designed by trendy architect Rem Koolhaas.
Up the road a block I saw this:
That's an O and a J backwards in raised letters.  I'm curious about this one too.  It's behind a fence so I may never be able to get it but maybe if I use a broom handle I can snag it.  It's on the site next to the Manischewitz property that will all become this:
It isn't as cheery as it sounds because we're losing a historic factory, a somewhat historic warehouse and a cobblestone street too.
Back to the Morris Canal now for these:
This one says (something) E WATER but it's just a huge mass or mortar with a few bricks inside.  It may never be freed:
This one says SHAWMUT PA and has four oval raised sections on it.  It is also larger than the other red bricks:
Here is the only one I brought home from the canal this week:
That's it.  The only one's I'm curious about are the AC and OJ in backwards raised letters with no frog.  I just posted the other ones to share.  You can post this and my prior messages on your website if you want.  If the intent is to let people know where to find bricks then this was the side of the canal at the end of Washington St., not Liberty State Park

From Fred Rieck:
Dave, re the AC and J.O.--the best I can suggest for an ID are two manufacturers listed in Dan De Noyelles' book - Within these Gates. For the A C: Allison (and) Cosgrove of Stony Point, NY ca.1859, and possibly Cornelius Allison for which De N. provides no location.

There are several brick trademarks involving "Allison" and his associates, such as: Allison & Wood, Allison, Wood & Keenan, Wood & Allison and A W A (Allison Wood Allison). These too have large raised letters on their brick - some excluding the "&" (ampersand). However their letter font styles, which are a little smaller in size and feature sans seriff letters, don't quite match the A C font of yours, Dave, nor mine, (which do feature seriff letters) well enough for me to base a selection on just letters - to be confident. Another early mfgr. from Dutchess Junction named Alonzo Covert may be a possibility. Bricks featuring the letter "C" (in which the "C" looks as if it is part of a seriff letter font set) are common in the COVERT area. COVERT bricks, marked as such are not common, in my experience.

The reversed "J.O". (the period vertically centered) may well be that of John Oldfield of Grassy Point.... as listed in De Noyelles.

The [star] remains a good mystery. There are some I would attribute to being of NJ mfgr. and some of NY mfgr. A number of the earlier manfrs have used a star (of various sizes and number) as a quick way to but a mark on their brick. Dave, yours seems to be a little different (9 smaller size stars in a non-frog brick) than the ones I'm familiar with. Of course the [star] may be the frog.


From Jim Finn:
I have a few bricks I collected from my estate in Central Alabama. Im interested in help identifying the age and/or history behind the bricks. There was a homestead in the area dated back to the early 1800s. I can send pics if that will help. Any help appreciated.

A reply from Fred Rieck:
Hi Jim, Being that the home was built in the early 1880's there are a few things you can do which may give you approximation of who and when your bricks may have been made. With the date of the buildings in mind try going to a library checking in with the Local History section. You may also need to consult with any Historical Societies in the area.

What you may wish to do is this: find any City Directories that may cover the area/village in which, or near which, your home was located ... and look for brick makers, or brick manufacturers in the "classified section of the directory. NOW The directory may not have a classified section (but even if it does) go through the alphabetial section where the local population is listed. With luck, the directory will provide names and business affiliations of the listed individuals, which may include adult children.

Back then, brick may have been made "on site," as opposed to a permanent (fixed place) brickyard, - by itinerant brick makers - thus the reason for searching lists of people.

Another tactic is to find local maps specific to a locality of interest, which may have the names of the property owners, as well as commercial businesses, printed on the map or listed along the border somewhere. These maps may be dated more recent than the build date of the house, but the chances are you can work backwards. That is, if a brickyard can be located on a 1868 map, that yard may have existed previously in 1860 or 1850 or earlier, even though the name of the yard may have changed during those years.
Fred Rieck


Terry Kayden writes:
I have alot of bricks marked Hallwood Block and some with OHIO with raised letters. Anybody with an idea or history reply.

From your webmaster:
If you have any information for Terry or anyone else here, Contact Us. Thanks!

January '08:

D K Henderson writes:
Thank you for your website. My dad left a recording of his childhood at Kingston, talking about the brickyards and the limestone quarries. It is interesting to see all the pictures and information.


Kim Kaskin-Couto writes:
I have a brick with Killian on it found in ruin when lake marion was flooded, have you seen any? Or know where from?

From your Webmaster:
I assume you are referring to Lake Marion, South Carolina. In Brick Brands of the United States, Jim Graves lists KILLIAN brick being made by Killian 20th Century in Pensacola, FL.


From Tina Kaasmann Dunn:
Hello from Staten Island- home of at least 4 brick companys. Just found a brick with the name Shamrock. Any knowledge of this brick?? thanks. Love your web site- haven't looked at it all yet !!

Webmaster Note:
Thanks Tina for your kind words. Fred and I are still working on SHAMROCK. We'll keep you posted here.


Dave H writes:
Is it standard practice to clean bricks after they're hauled in? What's the best way to remove mortar? My first day out doing this and I found that only about 1% of the bricks were marked and 99% of the marked bricks were WASHBURN. I also saw Reilly Rose, JJJ, CMJ, Mallory, Brigham, Hutton, Shultz and A&W. I couldn't walk back with them all so I took one not listed here - VALENTINE XX. It's a white brick and slightly larger than the typical red ones so I'm guessing it had a special purpose. A search for that name results in many adult sites and nothing about bricks so any info on Valentine would be appreciated. Thanks.

From your Webmaster (see also comments to/from Dave H, above):
In Brick Brands of the United States Jim Graves lists VALENTINE XX as being a firebrick made by M. D. Valentine & Brothers in Woodbridge, NJ. Firebrick is made of special clays that will withstand the high temperatures of fireplaces, boilers, fireboxes and similar usages without cracking or decomposing. Firebrick is larger than regular structural brick. More info on types of brick can be found here and here.

The Woodbridge, NJ web site ( states, "Woodbridge is universally known for its fine clay deposits and its by-products, brick. In 1859, it was said that material for nearly 80,000,000 fire bricks was at that time being sent annually to the market from Woodbridge. In 1866, M.D. Valentine and James R. Valentine commenced business on the present site of the M.D. Valentine and Brothers Co. plant near Spa Spring and the manufacture of lath brick for which J.J. Valentine had been granted a patent the previous year. This brick was to be manufactured in scouring pipe, tile and brick. By 1876, the plant had grown to such proportions that it was capable of making 4,000,000 of these bricks a year. Woodbridge clay and its by-products are known throughout the world."

This yard was taken over by A.P. Green who also produced a VALENTINE XX firebrick. For information and pics of A.P. Green Click Here.


From Alice Cooper:
I live in Palatka, FL where most of the streets are still brick. They are made from GRAVES bricks from Birmingham AL.(1901 era) While walking my dog this morning, and looking at all those bricks, I decided to do a little research on bricks. That was 3 hours ago!!!! and I'm still inthralled with your site. So much info, great pics, and wonderful comments. I've found out so much about the few bricks I have collected. Thanks for the great site.

Webmaster Note:
Alice, thanks for your nice comments! From the Flagler County web site ( "The Graves Brick Company was organized by William H. Graves in the early twentieth century. A native of Knoxville, Tennessee, Graves earned a law degree at the College of William and Mary, and returned to Tennessee to open a law firm. After the Civil War, he moved to Montgomery, Alabama and then relocated to Birmingham, in 1890. Graves maintained his law practice and invested in real estate. Soon, he began constructing buildings for investment and on speculation,and organized a brick company to supply materials for those projects. The City of Birmingham’s street paving program offered additional opportunities in the manufacturing of vitrified bricks. By 1901, Graves had organized the GravesShale Brick Company. Over the following two decades, he also organized the Graves-Matthews Paving Company and the Graves-Gunster Paving Company,both with men who married his daughters. H. S. Matthews briefly served as general manager for the brick and paving businesses before moving to Florida.By 1915, the Graves Company had sold millions of bricks, both the common typefor use in the construction of buildings and vitrified type for street and road construction. Eventually, Graves combined the brick and paving businesses, which he closed about 1920. By then, Graves was among the most prominent attorneys and property owners in Birmingham. Most of the bricks forming Old Dixie Highway in Flagler County were made by Graves.

From Wikipedia (,_Florida): "on November 7, 1884, Palatka suffered a devastating fire. Guests arrived that season to find no accommodations, and so continued on the train south -- the beginning of a gradual tourism shift elsewhere. It would also lose trade, shipping and transportation preeminence to Jacksonville. Nevertheless, with its downtown rebuilt in brick to be fireproof, Palatka emerged a finer place."

For some great articles on Florida's "Old Brick Road" go HERE.

Jim Finn writes:
I have a few bricks I collected from my estate in Central Alabama. Im interested in help identifying the age and/or history behind the bricks. There was a homestead in the area dated back to the early 1800s. I can send pics if that will help. Any help appreciated.


This from Robin K Robson:
Hi! My family owned Robson's Brickyard and Works in Buffalo, NY during the later 1800's. With all relatives gone, I have no information regarding the business and would really appreciate some guidence. Many thanks, Robin Robson.


Chad Reid writes:
We are demolishing a building at Fort Sam Houston, Texas (circa mid-1880's). The bricks are all labeled "Sayre & Fisher Co.". Does anyone know about how old these bricks are?

From Webmaster Don:
You will find info on Sayre & Fisher on our website HERE.


Bill Usher writes:
I recently found buried under my bayshide lawn, 3 "Ferris, Houston" bricks with a small sailboat imprint (about 1" size) in the upper corners. One imprint is of an old fashioned sloop; the other imprint is a schooner. Never seen an additional imprint like that. What was that about


This is from Jackie:
Hi, we have found some old bricks in Moriches Bay, Long Island stamped 'Shamrock' and 'Sage' around a home with a bulkhead built around 1905. Do you know anything about these bricks? Thank you

Hi Jackie, There is a listing for SAGE BRICK CO. in the 1910 Greenport LI. Phone Book. Also, on page 52 of the 1934 Eastern Long Island Almanac and Guidebook in the "Business Directory" under Greenport is this ad:
"THE SAGE BRICK MANUFACTURING COMPANY--Brick by Truck to any Eastern L.I. point--Main Road--Phone 3"
And there is the Brick Cove Marina on "Sage" Blvd in Southhold, NY (they also list an address at "1670 Sage Boulevard Greenport, NY").
Fred and I are still working on the origin of SHAMROCK brick.
--Don B.


Howard writes:
Does anyone know if there are any brick pavers for sale that were part of the Cherryvale street paving about 100 years ago? Please publish my email as: howie.d AT gmail dot com.


Gary Barrieau Comments:
I have some Graves bricks--does anyone know anything about them?

From your Webmaster:
Gary, scroll up to read about GRAVES Brick.


This from Britt:
We found a brick marked "N. ADAMS" (where both the "N" and "S" are backwards. Do you know if this was one of Nathaniel Adams' bricks? I can't find any information this brick anywhere. Thanks for any information you could provide. Britt (in Florida)


From Daniel Beck:
In response to Jack Donohue: I came here to learn more about Dolan bricks myself, because I too am related to the Dolan family. My great-grandmother was Rita Dolan, wife of James Dolan, of the Dolan Brick family. I have 75% of a Dolan brick, but I am looking for a complete brick.


From Chester Hartwell:
Love your website, well done! I came across a collection of Hudson Bricks at the Hurley Heritage Society this fall. They also have a WASHBURN brick mold. I have some photos and have attempted an inventory here:

H + G 
OXE    O 

I had been looking into the Kingston bluestone industry because the village intended to dispose of some slabs near their park playground. I found some other slabs on display in Kingston, then Hurley, where I found the brick collection. I intend to lobby them to get them off the floor and away from the ground water leak and to catalog them better. Can you recommend proper conservation techniques for the bricks and the brick mold ?

I grew up on Long Island and only knew NASSAU bricks, which I have since read a little on. Your website answered many of my questions about how the industry made bricks--the photos are invaluable !

An acquaintance from the Saugerties Historical Society--maiden name is Washburn. I informed her of the Hurley Washburn brick mold and she wrote:
"Thanks Chester for the info. Go on to the Mayone site. That was my Aunt Delores's family. She was married to my mothers brother Joe and they lived in the old homestead at the entrance to Bishop's Gate. She was much younger than my Uncle Joe. They actually did live in a Villa that is located as soon as you go over the railroad tracks and the drive to the right off of Ulster Ave. I remember going there as a child and it was really beautiful. I think it is in disrepair now and it has changed owners and they may have converted it into apartments. I have home movies of it. Thanks again for the web site."

HHS links:

I was interested in why the Rt 209 through Hurley was so wide. Recently I learned that that new nature trail was the O&W right of way. I took an old O&W RR Hurley station photo and approximated the same POV and crudely married the two photos using my VISIO drawing program. I have since sent it off to the town historian who wants to use it. I wonder what bricks were used. I also got to meet Rob Yasinsac this fall, another interested party.
Happy Holidays !

From Webmaster Don B.:
Here's the WASHBURN mold Chester mentioned:

Click these links to see his other photos:


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