HUDSON RIVER BRICKMAKING

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Background

The background for this page is from bricks found in the Hudson River area of New York State. where hundreds of brick-making factories existed from the late 1700s into the 1940s.

During the last Ice Age in the Hudson Valley area, blankets of ice weighing millions of tons crushed the rocks of many mountains into a spectacular deposit of flour-textured, rich blue clay. This came to rest in the bays and coves of the newly carved Hudson River. In 1928, test borings made in the Hudson off the old Cofferdam in southern Haverstraw, drilled 100 feet deep and still did not drill through the clay.







Haverstraw

At the height of its prosperity, Haverstraw village was part of a bustling region regarded worldwide as a premier brickmaking area. Ten thousand people in the area depended upon the bay-area industry for their livelihood. Outsiders flocked to the village, which was a thriving metropolis for more than 100 years.

To access our new Haverstraw Page:

CLICK HERE.







The Innovators:
VerValen, Wood & Strickland

Richard VerValen

Brickmakers were confounded by the problems they encountered with the oftentimes irregular shape of the building blocks, which at that time were made almost entirely by hand. A few rudimentary tools had been introduced to help streamline production and in 1830, Nathaniel Adams of Newburgh and Cornwall, NY, invented a moulding machine. However this required human or animal labor to operate.

The real break-through came in 1852, when Richard VerValen developed his brickmaking machine. This connected to a steam-powered drive shaft called a "power-line."

VerValen Machine

VerValen, who knew the industry and had "an inventive mind," pondered the dilemma for a time, according to the late historian, author and area resident, Daniel deNoyelles, in his book, "Within These Gates."

Before VerValen invented his machine in 1852, the clay was forced into the moulds by hand, and therefore had to be rather soft - and when the bricks were dumped out of the moulds, many became misshapen. VerValen's machine made it possible to use stiffer clay. Quoting from deNoyelles:

"..the VerValen machine forced the raw clay into the moulds with a machined packer. The moulds held six brick paralleling each other. Under this newer method a stiffer clay could be used, which made a brick more square. The moulds were drawn by hand from a revolving sander where the iron oxide was added to the flour-like moulding sand. This dusted the insides of the moulds and allowed the soft brick to slip easily to the surface on the drying yards. Of course the filled mould were first 'struck off' by a two-handed knife about two feet long. This made the brick smooth on the exposed plane. This knife was called the moulder's strike'."

"The tempering of the mixture was effected back of the press by a steel shaft pinned with steel knives which extended into the raw clay, sand, and coal dust which had been conveyed above the press by a chain and bucket elevator."

"Red coloring was added to the outside of the newly-moulded brick by adding iron oxide to the moulding sand in the patent sander ca. 1885. Before that time, brick had been burned in their raw state, resulting in a light pink color with a whiteish tint at times. With the use of red ochre, as some oldtimers called it, the hard-burned brick had a deep red, and in some places, a rich purple hue."
Another machine was invented in 1874 to automatically 'sand' the moulds, so that it could keep up with the VerValen moulding machine.

A Closter, NJ native, VerValen lived in Rockland County, NY as a child. He then left for upstate New York before returning to Rockland (Haverstraw) in 1848, where he worked manufacturing stoves and plows in his foundry.

According to legend, it was in the middle of a Sunday church sermon that VerValen had a breakthrough and came up with the machine design. He patented his machine in 1852 and, its principles were "so workable and so novel to brickmaking" that they were used until a more advanced machine, incorporating some of his original ideas, was developed in the 1920s.



James Wood

In 1828 brickmaker James Wood discovered that 'culm' - fine coal dust - added to the mixture reduced burning time for a kiln by one-half, from FOURTEEN DAYS to SEVEN. He patented it in 1836:

'Be it known that I, the said James Wood, have invented a new and useful improvement in the art of manufacturing bricks and tiles. The process is as follows: Take of common anthracite coal, unburnt, such quantity as will best suit the kind of clay to be made into brick or tile, and mix the same, when well pulverized, with the clay before [it] is moulded; that clay which requires the most burning will require the greatest proportion of coal-dust; the exact proportion, therefore, cannot be specified; but, in general, three fourths of a bushel of coal-dust to one thousand brick will be correct. Some clay may require one eighth more, and some not exceeding a half-bushel.

The benefits resulting from this composition are the saving of fuel, and the more general diffusion of heat through the kiln, by which the whole contents are more equally burned. If the heat is raised too high, the brick will swell, and be injured in their form. If the heat is too moderate, the coal- dust will be consumed before the desired effect is produced. Extremes are therefore to be avoided. I claim as my invention the using of fine anthracite coal, or coal-dust, with clay, for the purpose of making brick and tile as aforesaid, and for that only claim letters patent from the United States.

JAMES WOOD.'

Dated 9th November, 1836.

Wood, an Englishman, came to Ossining, NY in 1814 but found little clay there so he leased a yard across the river (from Daniel deNoyelles) in Haverstraw and established his first brickyard in 1815. Later he invented a machine for tempering clay.

There also was a "Wood" brickyard in Tarrytown, NY:

"During the mid-1800's brick makers took advantage of the clay deposits in the (Sleepy Hollow/Tarrytown) area. In 1885 Wood Brick Yard sold its property at the foot of Beekman Avenue to the Rand Drill Company, in what would later become the home of several automobile manufactures. In 1899, on the south side of present day Kingsland Point Park, automobile making began with the Mobile Company of America producing the Stanley Steamer. This was succeeded by the Chevrolet Company and then the start of the General Motors Company in 1915. In 1996 after having assembled some 11 million vehicles General Motors closed down and dismantled all of its buildings as required by local law." Ed. Note: The site is now being developed for condominiums.
(http://www.scenichudson.org/rivercomm/riverfronts/gmhistory.htm)
Three generations of Woods: James, Samuel and George all worked at the Tarrytown yard. Here's a biographical sketch of George Wood:

GEORGE S. WOOD. On an elevated terrace near Tomkins Cove, commanding a beautiful view of the river and surrounding country, stands the home of Mr. Wood, and here he has resided since 1864. His principal business in life has been the brick industry, though he has other interests that are important and valuable. In everything pertaining to the advancement of Rockland County he maintains a deep interest, and his co-operation is always to be depended upon in matters tending toward the general welfare.

The ancestry of our subject is traced to England. His grandfather, James Wood, emigrated from that country to America in 1801, and be-came one of the pioneer brick manufacturers of this section of country. Prior to leaving his native land, he learned the brick-making business, and he was the first in this locality who utilized coal dust in its manufacture. The immense business of this character now carried on at Haverstraw and in the vicinity is the growth of the beginning made by him. Our subject's father, Samuel Wood, was born in Colchester, England,and when only five years of age was brought to America. His boyhood days were spent in this locality, and at a very early age he became familiar with the brick business, which he followed throughout his entire life, having extensive interests at Haverstraw and Tarry town. His death occurred in r868, at the age of seventy-three.

The mother of our subject was in maidenhood Malvina Smith, and was born in Rockland County. Her death occurred in Tarrytown at the age of seventy-six. Of her twelve children we note the following: Mary is deceased; George S. is the subject of this notice; Orlando is deceased; Mary Elizabeth is the widow of George Gaylor, and resides in Stamford, Conn.; Caroline, Mrs. Caleb W. Horton, is deceased; Theodore S. died at the age of thirty-eight; Martha Amanda died in girl-hood; Henrietta is the wife of George Smith, of Tomkins Cove; Euphemia died when three years old; Horatio Nelson was in the navy, under Admiral Farragut, during the Civil War, and now makes his home in Haverstraw; Nellie died at the age of forty-three; and Sophia, deceased, was the wife of Joseph H. Vail, of Tarrytown.

In Haverstraw, January 31, 1823, the subject of this sketch was born, and there the first eight years of his life were spent. He then accompanied his parents to Tarrytown, where he remained until twenty-one years of age, meantime attending the public schools of that place, and gaining a fair education. Like his ancestors, he early gained a thorough knowledge of the brick business, and in that industry he embarked at Tarrytown when twenty years old. He continued to reside there until 1852, meeting with flattering success in his ventures, but at that time he returned to Haverstraw, where the twelve ensuing years were passed. In the fall of 1864 he came to Tomkins Cove and took up his residence at the beautiful place he has since occupied. He has extensive real-estate interests, not only here, but also in other places, and is also interested financially in the Tomkins Cove Stone Company.

The political opinions of Mr. Wood are by no means undecided, for he is a firm and loyal sup-porter of the Republican party, and uniformly votes that ticket. In religious belief he is connected with the Methodist Protestant Church. Personally of a genial, affable nature, he has won a host of friends in this community, and is highly esteemed for his uprightness of character and geniality of disposition. His marriage united him with Miss Laura P., daughter of Calvin and Esther (Tuers) Tomkins, and they became the parents of a daughter, Esther M., who died at the age of nineteen years.

(SOURCE: Portrait and Biographical Record of Rockland and Orange Counties New York Containing Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the Counties.
New York and Chicago; Chapman Publishing Co., 1895)




David Strickland

David J. Strickland of Cleveland, OH, the Bronx and Beacon, NY, patented numerous brick-making inventions:

1911: Improved Brickmaking Machinery.

1920: Strickland Automatic Brick-making Machine.

1925: Low-Pressure Steam Brick Dryer.

Strickland is also credited with creating oven-sized brick and introducing the coloring of common brick in the New York market.




The extent of the industry

Business was booming. The New York metropolitan area was experiencing a building craze. In 1923, the price of brick commanded $20 per 1000. At its height, the brick industry along the Hudson River comprised over 130 brick yards.

On the EAST SHORE (from North to South),
New York towns, operators and brands included:

(Click on underlined headings for more info.)

Click Here for Broadband Version with Interactive Maps

Schodack Landing:
Edward BROSSEAU

Stuyvesant

Newton Hook:
William N. CARY (yard)
EMPIRE Brick Co.

Stockport:
Robert MAIN

Hudson:
ATLAS Brick Co.,
BARTLETT Brick Co.,
Bartlett Bros. (B B), Antonio Colarusso (A.C. Co.),
James Fitzgerald (FITZ-G)

Poughkeepsie (and Arlington):
Matthew Vassar,
William H. HAIGHT,
Poughkeepsie Brick corp. (PBCORP),
Flagler & Allen (F & A),
W. N. WETTERAU,
TOWEY Brick Company (?),
Allen and Terwilliger (A & T),
Allen Townsend & Mack (AT&M),
Norton I Pennock (NIP)

Brockway:
BROCKWAY Bros.,
McCabe & McGrath

Chelsea:
F. Watrous,
Shackett & Roubellard (S & R),

Beacon (Dennings Point):
Homer Ramsdell, Dennings Point Brick Works (D.P.B.W.) (DPBW) (DPBCo)

Fishkill, Fishkill Landing and Dutchess Junction:
John PAYE
Aaron E. ALDRIDGE (AEA, ABC),
William K. HAMMOND, (W K H), Hammond & Freeman (H & F),
Francis Timoney (F.T.),
W.D. BUDD (W D B),
NICHOLSON Bros (N),
Anchor Brick Co.,
Constant De Cesere,
Jos. BELLE ISLE,
MALLEY Bros.
Thomas DINAN
Gormley & Son (G & SON)
Barnacue & Dow (B & B)
Also: O'Brien, Vaughey & McConnell had yards in Fishkill and stores in Verplanck

Breakneck:
Clark, Esq.
Daniel Fowler

Cold Spring:
Milton Wise3

Peekskill:
W.B. Corwin3
Daniel J. Haight
William Mabie (Haitam and Mabie)
Southard's Brickyard
Peekskill Fire Brick Works
BONNER Brick Co. (Lent's Cove)

Verplanck (and Crugers):
John Henry (1849)1

In the Civil War period1:
Francis Timoney--3 yards
Adam Fisher--2 yards
Thomas Vaughey
Hudson Brick Manufacturing Co.
John MORTON--2 yards
Cyrus Travis
O'Brien & McConnon (O & MC)
King & Lynch (K & L)

On a Beers map dated 18683:
William Bleakley
J.A Whitbeck & Co.
S.M. Dyckman
S. Billings
Francis Timoney
J. Butler
J. Carry
P. O'Brien

From a commemorative roadside plaque in Verplanck and a Beers map dated 1891:
MACKEY Yards
Patrick O'BRIEN (P O)
O'Brien & Vaughey,
Jesse PERLMAN
Patrick King & Sons
L. H. Lynch Co.
BONNER Brick Co.
UNDERHILL Brick Co.
East Shore Brick Company (E S B Co)
Hudson River Brick Company (H R B)
SHANERUCK Brick Co.
Frank NESBIT,
James D. AVERY
Adam FISHER.

Montrose (and George's Island):
Matthew GORMLEY,
Edward D. Bellefuille (E D B),
Francis Timoney,
C. HYATT


In Westchester County, on the Eastern shore, one of the areas brickmaking took place was Croton-on-Hudson where William A. Underhill established a brick works in 1837. We have created a special page on this historic site with notes from Sarah Gibbs Underhill called "Tales From Croton Point."


Croton (and Croton Landing):
John W. Frost (1830)
(father of Cyrus and Orrin Frost)
John Cox (1840s)
Francis Larkin and Marcus L. Cobb
The Croton Brick Company
(James Stevenson Van Cortlandt)
The Croton Landing Brick Co. (1882)2
(Robert Ray & Schuyler Hamilton)
George & Eliza A. Morton
John MORTON
Anchor Brick Company (1890)2
(Gertrude Hamilton)
Underhill Talcott Brick Co.
(William A. Underhill, Richard Talcott)
William A. Underhill Brick Co. (W.A.U., IXL)

Tarrytown:
James Wood
Peabody(?)



Along the WEST SHORE (from North to South),
towns, operators and brands included:

(Click on underlined headings for more info.)

Mechanicville and Half Moon:
Mechanicville Brick Co.
Best Brick Co.
The CARY Brick Co. (CA+RY) (with CBMA Symbol),
Halfmoon,
Stuyvesant,
Hudson Valley,
Duffney Brick Co. (DB+CO)
(with CBMA Symbol),
Mohawk Brick Co.
Champlain Brick Co.
Ferris Paving Brick Co. (FPBCo)
New England Brick Co (NEBCo)

Cohoes:
William N. CARY (yard)

Albany:
Isaac I. Fryer
Peter Quackenbush

Coeymans:
Conrad F. Suderly,
Sutton & Suderly (SSBCO),
Sutton & Sinsabaugh
ROAH HOOK,
Adamo Brothers (ADAMO-B),
Corwin & McCullough,
Powell & Minock,
Robert LENT,
Hardwick & Walsh,
Ziegler & Ziegler, Ziegler Bros. (ZZZ),
GORDON (?)

Coxsackie:
Fitzgerald (FITZ-G)

Athens:
W., W. Rider, Jr.,
Joseph MAYONE

Catskill:
Jerome Walsh,
George W. Washburn (XXX),
(F & C) possibly custom made for Foote and Cummings building supply,
Ferrier & Golden,
B. Goldin & Son,
C.C. Abeel,
Catskill Shale Brick and Paving Co. AKA: Eastern Paving Brick Co (1901) (CATSKILL),
Kaaterskill Paving Brick Co. (1906),
Catskill Vitrified Brick Co. (1910),
and Tidewater Paving Brick Co. (1917) (TIDEWATER),
Joseph MAYONE

Catskill Brickyard
Ferrier & Golden and C.C. Abeel Brickyards, Catskill, NY
(From a drawing by L.R. Burleigh, Troy, NY 1889)
(Click the pic to go to our special CATSKILL page.)

Malden:
Alva STAPLES (1903-1958) (Yard 2),
Bishop Yards,
Farrel & Cooney

Saugerties/Glasco:
MAYONE
Robert LENT (1850s)
Henry CORSE (1870s)
George W. WASHBURN,
WASHBURN Bros. (1867-1949)
Empire Brick & Supply Co.,
S. J. & T. J. Smith,
John Maginnis (1840s)
Gardner & Goldsmith (G & G)
Gaston Wilbur (1860s)
I. Dunn & Co.
John Overbaugh (1840s)
Overbaugh & Maginnis (1840s)
D.C. Overbaugh
William Hale
C.H. Littlefield

"Portersville":
J. Porter
SHAHAN
MAIN, RM (Robert Main, 1897)
ANDERSON
ALPHA Brick & Holding Co.
F.N. VAN DEUSEN, Van Duzen & Terry

Ulster Landing:
Dwyer Bros. Yard No. 2 (shamrock symbol)
KB&ICo (Kingston Brick & Ice Company, made by Dwyer)
HB&ICo (Hanrahan Brick & Ice Co, made by Dwyer)
MCABE, McCabe & Co, M in an oval (Frank J. McCabe & Co.)
NRBCo (North River Brick Company)
ULB (Ulster Landing Brick Co.)
L&LBCo (Lawatsch & Lotz Brick Co.)
GOLDRICK, (G) (Philip Goldrick) (Upper Yard at Goldrick's Landing (by Kingston-Rinecliff Bridge)
W. Littlefield
A. ROSE (Alonzo Rose, 1890s), A R & Co (Alonzo Rose & Co.), ROSE (Rose Brick Co.) (1900s), ROSE BROS
D.C. Overbaugh
LYNCH, LL (Lynch Bros.), (L. Lynch)
TOPPIN (Henry Toppin)
BROPHY, (Brophy Brick Co.), B BROS (Brophy Bros.), B & B (Brophy & Brother)
DINAN (Thomas Dinan)

(today's Chas. Rider Park):
GOLDRICK (Lower Yard)
KING (King Brick Co.)

Town of Ulster (today's Rbt Post Park and South):
U. F. & J. T. W (U. F. & J. T. Washburn)
Daniel Weed, Weed & Sutton
John Shutero
Palmer Gerrit
Thomes Beekman

East Kingston:
D. Manchester (1891)
Nathan NICKERSON (1880-)
Frederick P. Luther
G. Kerr
E. GARDNER (1913)
John J. KING

(3.5 mi. NE of Mansion House(NOTE 1), "Flat Bush"):
J. H. Streeter
HENDRICKS (Hendricks Brick Co.)
S & H (Streeter & Hendricks)

(3 mi. NE of Mansion House):
Harry R. Brigham, BRIGHAM Bros. Brick Works (1891-1950s)
TERRY BROS. Upper Yard No. 2


Interactive aerial view of bricks along the Hudson south of Rbt. Post Park
(Click on "ROAD" to see street names, etc. There's a "BRIGHAM" St & a "TERRY" St.)

(2.25 mi. NE of Mansion House):
Charles A. Schultz/East Kingston Brick Co. (SHULTZ) (C A S) (1876-1940s)
TERRY, 19TERRY24, TERRY BROS Terry Bros. Co. Lower Yard No. 1, (David, Albert & Edwin)

(2 mi. NE of Mansion House):
Staples (1880)

(1.75 mi. NE of Mansion House):
Fredericks Brick Co
The Mains and Clark Brick Co. Brick Works
Dwyer Brick Yard
Kingston Brick & Ice Works (run by Dwyer, had incline railway)

Steep Rocks:
David Terry, TERRY BROS. (1850-1946)

Kingston Point:
(Rondout area: 1.25 mi NE of Mansion House):
Cordts & Hutton (1865-1890)
William HUTTON, The HUTTON Co. (1890-1965)
Jova Mfg Co (JMC) (1965-1970)
Terry STAPLES (1970-1980)

Port Ewen:
N. E. TURNER (1890s) (sold to Gurney)
S.E. COYKENDALL
Jacob Kline (sold to Bishop)

Ulster Park (Esopus):
C. SCHLEEDE Brick Co.

New Paltz:
New Paltz Brick Co,
A.M. LOWE

Roseton:
Arrow Brick Works
John Bailey ROSE, ROSE BROS, Rose Brick Co. (ROSE CO)
(Rose also had an address at 103 Park Ave, NYC)
Jova Brick Works,
Atlas Building Material Co.

Newburgh:
P. F. Greaney,
M. M. Hayden,
C. C. Bourne,
H. Davidson's Sons

New Windsor
William LAHEY
Hugh Davidson

Cornwall:
Hedges Brick Co.,

Jones Point

Tomkins Cove

Stony Point:
Walter F. B. Gurnee
Abram S. Gurnee,
Frank L. Dunnigan (FLD)

West Haverstraw

Haverstraw (incl. Grassy Point, Thiells and Garnerville)
(See special Haverstraw Page.)

Tappan


In New Jersey bricks were made at:

Hackensack:
Charles E. Walsh,
Edward Schmultz,
James W. Gillies,
M. B. & L. B. Gardner, M. & L. E. Gardner

Little Ferry:
I. & W. Felter,
Henry Gardner (HG),
Trevianus & Gardner (T&G)
J.W. Gillies
Mehrhoff Brick Co.,
N. Mehrhoff Co. (NM& Co),
P. Mehrhoss Co.

Jersey City:
Daniel Tompkins

Sayreville:
Sayre & Fisher (S & F Co)


Bricks were also made at:

GreenRidge (Staten Island, NY):
RICHMOND


For additions and/or corrections, please Contact Us







Decline

Shortly after the turn of the 20th century, things began to change. Cheaper European bricks flooded the market, and the focus shifted to lighter building materials such as glass, aluminum and steel. Veneers over poured concrete foundations were used instead of brick for building. The Great Depression sounded the industry's death knell, by 1933 the price for 1000 bricks fell from $20 to $9.50. World War II delivered the final blow.

When the last yard, Rockland Brick Co., dismantled its only remaining kiln shed in 1941, part of the shed was delivered to a World War II munitions plant for scrap.

Hudson River Bricks were the subject of a book,"The Great Hudson River Brick Industry" (Purple Mountain Press, 2003), by George V. Hutton, whose family owned a factory in Kingston, N.Y., from 1865 to 1980. To obtain this landmark book at a Special Price Click Here.

Another fine book "Within These Gates" (Copyright 1982) by Daniel deNoyelles is available at the Haverstraw Brick Museum. At the turn of the century, the deNoyelles Brickyard was a major player in the North Rockland brickmaking industry.






The Great Hudson River Brick Industry Webmaster Note:
We are offering George Hutton's landmark book, The Great Hudson River Brick Industry at a Special Discount Price for all visitors to BrickCollecting.com.

"George Vandeusen Hutton passed away in August of 2008. He was a very learned gentleman. I think we can all appreciate the completion of his book, now in its 3rd printing." --Fred Rieck, BrickCollecting.com

"Without this writing, essential technical information would have vanished forever." --William Minnock, President (retired), Powell and Minnock, Brickmakers

George had firsthand experience in brickmaking at the Hutton Company in Kingston, New York. Click Here for Complete Info. And here's a link to our HUTTON Page.

You will also find many new additions to our on-line "Olde Brick Store." Many hard-to-find books on Hudson Valley history and lore are there and some are at special discounts.






Notes/Sources Consulted:

NOTE 1: An 1899 Sanborn Map uses Mansion House, Kingston, as a reference. Mansion House (corner Broadway and West Strand) was built in 1854 by Major George Von Beck on the site of the original, the stone house of William Swart. The luxury hotel of its day and an important stopping-off place for stagecoach and steamer passengers. It also provided housing for canallers, probably on a less deluxe basis. Famed for its saloon. Recently renovated. (SOURCE: http://www.ulster.net/~hrmm/rondout/guide.htm)

1. Town of Cortlandt Bicentennial History Committee, History of the Town of Cortlandt, 1988
2. Westchester County Incorporation Records, 1876-1914
3. F.W. Beers, County Atlas, 1868
Casey, Thomas F. X., "A Brief History of Rockland County," (Rockland County Historian)
Clarke, Suzan, "Haverstraw's place in history assured by machine," The Journal News, March 28, 2003
deNoyelles, Daniel, Within These Gates, Copyright 1982
Graves, Jim, "Brick Brands of the United States"
Haring, Regina M., "Brickmaking Along the Hudson River"
Hutton, George V., The Great Hudson River Brick Industry, Purple Mtn Press, 2003
Mayone, Mike, "The Gentleman from Ulster" (Mike's great grandfather Joseph founded the MAYONE brickyard in Athens, NY)
Rieck, Fred, IBCA
Web Sites:
http://www.co.rockland.ny.us/environ/county/haverstraw.htm
http://www.thejournalnews.com
http://longislandgenealogy.com/1891/Surnames/E.htm
http://www.townofhaverstraw.us (Photo credit)
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/gmd:@field(NUMBER+@band(g3804c+pm005490 (Burleigh drawing)
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A02E5DE103BE533A25757C2A96E9C94619ED7CF (NY Times, Aug 24, 1890)
http://www.mechanicville.com/history/articles/whitebrickroad.htm
http://www.ulster.net/~hrmm/diglib/verplanck/prt-slooplist.html
Scharf's History of Westchester County, Volume 2, Chapter V, Cortlandt, page 419, 1886.
http://www.westchestergov.com/recordcenter/IncorporationPersonalNames.asp?pageNum=H
http://www.xydexx.net/squeaky/historical.htm




Links

Brick Manufacturers Supplying NYC Metro Areas in 1910

Brockway Brick Yard, near Beacon, NY

The Gentleman from Ulster (Joseph Mayone Founder of the Mayone Brickworks)

George Hutton: The Great Hudson River Brick Industry

Haverstraw Brick Museum

Haverstraw's place in history assured by machine

Peekskill's Raymond Chase Collection

Tales From Croton Point

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